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Albert Schweitzer 05: Tropical diseases and healing methods in Lambarene 1913-1927
Albert Schweitzer=one of the first "medical doctors without borders"

Syringe terrorism: syringes about all - accidental injuries - heart disease and syringes - sleeping sickness and syringes: from 1926 Tryparsamide or Bayer 205 - purulent processes - leprosy: cured with injected oil mixture (four parts chaulmoogra oil with 5 parts peanut oil) - dysentery, which is later partially recognized as cholera: Healing with white clay water - hookworm disease (ankylostomiasis) - tetanus - the mentally ill - bites injuries and bites: human bites are the worst - scabies with scabies ointment - colds + pneumonia - boils: cured with medicament Turpentine Steel - poisoning - surgery with bandages with the dye methyl violet: torn hands - shot elbows and bandages with the dye methyl violet - leopard bites and bandages with methyl violet - elephant flesh in the throat - ulcers heal with syringes and bandages with methyl violet - phageenic ulcers burst from dripping with a homeopathic dilution with mercury oxycy anur, or with a copper sulphate dilution or with Breosan ointment - skin transplants (strips, then circles) - cancer, tumors, no appendix cases - hernia operations (masterpiece) - accidental injuries healed with bandages with methyl violet - operation of elephantiasis (masterpiece) - teeth and dentition: brushing thymol - minor illnesses: flu - healings  of burns with bandages with methyl violet - save babies - illnesses especially with white patients in Lambarene: foot ulcers, malaria, black water fever with injections of 3% saline solution under the skin of the thighs - muscle abscesses, pneumonia, fractures, Leopard attacks etc. - sunstroke - furunculosis cured with Turpentine Steel - blacks are guinea pigs for Rockefeller

Syringe symbol    leprosy on the back   weak patient in
                Africa   leopard, dentition   methyl violet,
                dye powder   Elephantiasis ulcer on the leg
Syringe symbol [1] - leprosy on the back [4] - weak patient in Africa [5] - leopard, dentition [12] - methyl violet, dye powder [15] - elephantiasis ulcer [22]

from: Albert Schweitzer: Life+Thought (Aus meinem Leben und Denken 1931) -- Edge of the Primeval Forest (Zwischen Wasser und Urwald (1920) -- Letters from Lambarene 1924-1927 (Briefe aus Lambarene 1924-1927)

In: Albert Schweitzer. Collected works in 5 volumes (German: Gesammelte Werke in fünf Bänden): volume 1; Edition ExLibris without year (appr. 1970)

by Michael Palomino (2020)
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Literature: Books of Albert Schweitzer concerning medicine in the African rain forest

Medical reports from Africa:
1) On the edge of the primeval forest (orig. German: Zwischen Wasser und Urwald (Edition Haupt, Berne 1921 - Spanish: Entre el agua y la selva virgen)
2) Letters from Lambarene 1924-1927 (orig. German: Briefe aus Lambarene 1924-1927)
3) Out of My Life & Thought (orig. German: Aus meinem Leben und Denken 1931 - Spanish: Mi vida y pensamientos)

Other sources

Sources for the time from 1924-1927 in Lambarene are also the reviews of the C.H.Beck Edition, which were mainly written for the donors of the hospital:
-- Messages from Lambarene. First and second review (spring 1924 - autumn 1925). C.H.Beck Edition, 164 pages
-- Messages from Lambarene. Third review (autumn 1925-summer 1927). C.H.Beck-Verlag, 74 pages
The reviews are also available in Swedish, English and Dutch, English with the title: "More from the Primeval Forest" (Life + Thought, p.219)

Other medical doctors:
-- doctor Ouzilleau (method operating elephantiasis)

The list: The pioneering achievements of Albert Schweitzer and of his doctors in Lambarene

Pioneering achievement: preventing amputations in the event of severe injuries or fractures
-- with the prevention of amputations in the event of severe injuries or fractures: with the application of moist, methyl violet bandages,
-- with skin transplants a faster healing of open areas is possible where there was previously an ulcer (phageenic ulcers)
-- then from 1926 the phagedean ulcers were removed with a dripped homeopathic dilution with mercury oxycyanur, or with copper sulphate, or with Breosan ointment, so that general anesthesia was no longer necessary

Pioneering achievement: curing blackwater fever
Albert Schweitzer was finally able to cure the dreaded blackwater fever (destruction of red blood cells, e.g. by high doses of quinine) by injecting 3% saline solution under the skin of the thighs (letters from Lambarene, p.575-576)

Pioneering work: ulcer healing
-- from 1926 onwards, ulcers are "blown up" with the drop method with mercury oxycyanur or with copper sulfate, or with the ointment Breosan
-- Healing and new skin formation come with moist bandages with the dye methyl violet
-- Skin transplants shorten the healing time by 1/3.

Pioneering work: curing leprosy
The mixture with four parts chaulmoogra oil mixed with 5 parts peanut oil injected under the skin cures leprosy:

-- the exact mixture works with 4 parts of a little bit heated Chaulmoogra oil and 5 parts of a little bit heated peanut oil (hand warm)
-- then the mixture is sterilized [boiled?]
-- eveyr day 1/2 to 2 cm3 are injected under the skin of the thigh, which shows good healing results (letters from Lambarene, p.579).

Discovery 1926: Dysentery was often not a dysentery but was cholera
In 1926, Dr. Trensz in Lambarene's hospital is detecting with the the microscope that many people with dysentery do not have dysentery at all, but they suffer from a kind of cholera (cholerine) - cholera heals with white clay water. The pathogen is in the river system of the Ogowe River. It usually doesn't do any harm, but if black people only eat white rice, the immune systems and intestines become weak and susceptible to the pathogen.

Pioneering work: curing boils
takes place from 1926 with the drug "Turpentine Steel".

And any operation for hernias or elephantiasis should also be seen as a pioneering achievement. Regarding natural medicine with herbs, roots or salts, Albert Schweitzer unfortunately has NO pioneering achievements to show: he mostly healed with expensive pharmaceutical products from Europe or the Rockefeller Institute.

Albert Schweitzer did NOT know yoga and Ayurveda either, although he actually knew a lot about India. Albert Schweitzer had NO clue about homeopathy either. And instead of learning or researching about jungle plants next door, for replacing the expensive pharma drugs from Europe, he rather liked to play the piano or to pray to the Fantasy God of Rome. This is really not so effective!

The "healing methods" of Albert Schweitzer 1924-1927

Albert Schweitzer is a syringe terrorist with a little bit of natural medicine - syringes over all

Syringe symbol
Syringe symbol [1]

-- Albert Schweitzer claims that for healing tropical diseases a lot of intravenous injections have to be applied (letters from Lambarene, p.542). Quote (translation):
"Fortunately, Joseph [the black medical assistant and translator] has mastered the technique of intravenous injections, which are so important in the treatment of tropical diseases." (Letters from Lambarene, p.542)
-- the treatment of sleeping sickness and ulcers with Albert Schweitzer sometimes needs more than 20 injections per day (letters from Lambarene, p.516). Quote (translation):
"It is a lot of work that the sleeping sick and people with ulcers have to be treated with intravenous injections. Often there are over 20 such injections in a day." [for 20 patients?] (Letters from Lambarene, p.516)

-- and there is another difficulty: one hardly finds the vein in black people - [and the Jesus fantasy pastor Albert Schweitzer does NOT have the idea of ​​learning natural medicine or trying out new herbal remedies or treating people with homeopathy, which is already AVAILABLE in Europe. No, he has to lure the blacks for the syringe healings (!!!)]:
-- you have to "feel" the vein
-- often people have scabies and rashes and thus their skin is hard and armor-like, so it's not possible to feel the vein at all
-- with meager, emaciated skeletal patients, the injection through the vein is difficult
-- often multiple attempts are necessary, the syringe is under the skin looking around for searching the vein, this can last up to 1 hour to find the vein
-- "good veins" go quickly (letters from Lambarene, p.516)
-- in his hospital in Lambarene, Mr. Albert Schweitzer carries out an endless syringe terror, as luring agent he gives sugar to the patients for enduring the pain
-- in 1923, for his syringe terrorism, Mr. Albert Schweitzer has got the white assistant Noël (Noël Gillespie, chemistry student from Oxford - Life + Thought, p.214) who is called "lieutenant" by the natives (letters from Lambarene, p.517).

Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"The fact that people with sleeping sickness and people with ulcers have to be treated with intravenous injections means a lot of work. Often more than 20 such injections have to be made in a day [for 20 patients?]. And intravenous injections are much more difficult to perform with black people than with white people. The bluish tinge, which shows the course of the veins on the arms through the white skin is not present [on the black skin]. In addition, in many cases the skin of our patients has become a hard shell due to scabies and rashes, through which even the most trained finger does not have a blood vessel able to feel. And some sleeping sick are skeletons whose thin veins cause the greatest difficulties for intravenous injection. So it can happen that it takes repeated attempts until the needle finally finds the right way. These difficult cases, of which ( Letters, p.516) one case can last one hour of work under certain circumstances, it is their turn only when all injections with the "good veins" going fast are done.

A little sleeping sick girl, Zitombo, is our most feared patient. Quite a few sugar pieces have to be put in her mouth to quench her tears when the needle keeps looking around in her thin arm. When it is all over, she will be carried out of the hospital on the doctor's arm.

On Saturday, the main day of injections for the sleeping sick, woman missionary Ms. Herrmann knows that we will be an hour or two late for dinner. But she is very lenient with us.

Fortunately, Noël learned the technique of intravenous injections quickly and it saves me so much work.

Among the natives, Noël is called "the lieutenant". From the time the country was under military administration, they [the blacks] are used to having a lieutenant in addition to the district captain. Since they only know military doctors, I also have a somewhat military character for them. It is therefore obvious to them to regard the white man who is next to me as the doctor’s lieutenant. Noël has already got used to this name. Nobody calls him in another way than in this way now." (Letters from Lambarene, p.517)

The healing of heart disease with Albert Schweitzer: injections over all

Syringe symbol
Syringe symbol [1]

Listening to the heart with an ear tube and making diagnoses - that makes an impression on black people
Albert Schweitzer makes an impression on the Afros by listening to the heart with his ear tube and recognizing heart problems without communication with the blacks (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.359). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
<The number of people with heart disease surprises me more and more. For their part, they are amazed that I know all of their suffering when I have listened to them with my ear tube. "Now I think this is a real doctor!" a woman with heart disease recently called to Joseph [the helper]. "He knows that I often cannot breathe at night and that I have swollen feet a lot, and I haven't told him about it, and he hasn't even looked at my feet."> (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.359)

Heart disease in Lambarene: caffeine injections + ether injections + camphor injections
-- there come many old heart patients in the last stage, Albert Schweitzer gives caffeine injections, ether injections and camphor injections for heart patients, some are still dying away (letters from Lambarene, p.505)

-- the number of sick is increasing all the time (Life + Thought, p.216)
-- when the healing work begins again, a black timber merchant - Emil Ogouma - comes and provides Albert Schweitzer with 5 workers and 1 supervisor to carry out the most urgent repairs (letters from Lambarene, p.505).


Albert Schweitzer makes an impression on the Afros by listening to the heart with his ear tube and recognizing heart problems without the black people have told him before about it (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.359). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):¡
<The number of people with heart disease surprises me more and more. For their part, they are amazed that I know all of their suffering when I have listened to them with my ear tube. "Now I think this is a real doctor!" a woman with heart disease recently called to Joseph [the helper]. "He knows that I often cannot breathe at night and that I have swollen feet a lot, and I haven't told him about it, and he hasn't even looked at my feet."> (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.359)

Heart patients in Lambarene: Digitalin [Digitalinum verum]
Albert Schweitzer cures heart problems with digitaline: 1/10 milligram of digitaline daily for a few months, and the patient is not allowed to work for a few months - the latter is not a problem in Africa when the patients return to their villages - the Europeans are more likely to have the problem when they are not allowed to work for a few months ... (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.360).

Stroke is described as "death"
Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
<If someone wants to tell me that he has suffered a stroke, he says: "I was dead."> (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.378)

The healing of sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis) with Albert Schweitzer: injections over all

                  sleeping sickness   Albert Schweitzer is operating with
                  injections without end
African sleeping sickness [2] - Albert Schweitzer is operating with injections without end [1]

-- Tsetse flies: The tsetse fly "Glossina palpalis" spreads sleeping sickness. Tsetse flies are as big as the European hummingbird flies, but they fly silently and sting and suck blood through the thickest material - since tsetse flies never want to be discovered, they never land on white fabric, so the best protected against tsetse flies are to put white clothes. The blacks suffer brutally from the tsetse flies (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.357).

The tsetse fly Glossina palpalis only flies during the day, it is infected with sleeping sick people and is spreading the trypanosomes (drill body) to everyone it stings (p.392). In the night it is also the mosquitoes that transmit the sleeping sickness, whereby the pathogens in the mosquito only survive for a few hours because the mosquito cannot absorb a big quantity of them (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.392-393).

The pathogens are intruding the fluid of the meninges and of the spinal cord membranes, are intruding the "Liquor cerebro-spinalis" (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.393).

Spread of sleeping sickness throughout Central Africa
The white colonialists with their travel activities and deportations caused the spread of the sleeping sickness all over Central Africa until 1914, from the east coast to the west coast, to the Niger in the north and to the river Zambezi in the south (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.395 ).

Research into sleeping sickness
The researchers concerning sleeping sickness are: Ford, Castellani, Bruce, Dutton, Koch, Martin, Leboeuf (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.391).

Sleeping sickness is discovered in Sierra Leone in 1803 for the first time among black people, since the 1860s there are first systematic investigations (p.391). First the disease is called "Gambian fever". With comparisons in the microscope it comes out that the long feverish states are already sleeping sickness (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.392).

Symptoms of sleeping sickness
Sleeping sickness is a chronic meningitis and encephalitis (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.393), the symptoms are:
-- a slight fever that comes and goes
-- rheumatic pain
-- amnesia [loosing the memory]
-- insomnia [no need to sleep]
-- possibly a state of being mentally ill with melancholy or rage or thoughts of suicide
-- in some cases: severe headache
-- the development can take two to three years until falling asleep, there are naps while sitting quietly or after eating (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.390)
-- In the end, sleep becomes eternal and goes into a coma, the patients defecate and urinate without noticing it, lose weight, ulcers form where the ground is touched, final sleeping position is an embryo position with knees on the chin, sometimes an improvement comes before the final death, in the end pneumonia also often occurs (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.391).

Diagnosis with a microscope - otherwise it can be mistaken for malaria
-- with people with sleeping sickness the blood has to be diagnosed under the microscope, because the symptoms are similar to malaria and one has to know which disease it is exactly (letters, p.566)
-- nothing works without a microscope (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.393-394)
-- the pathogens which cause the sleeping sickness are not very numerous, e.g. it can be that just 1 pathogen can be found in 4 drops of blood, and the microscopic examination of a drop of blood takes 10 minutes (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.394)
-- the last test is then in the blood centrifuge with 10cm3 of blood, so the pathogens can be concentrated (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.394)
-- and the pathogens are not always there, the sleeping sick have phases during which the pathogens are absent in the blood! (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.394).

Therefore, a patient with a fever and a headache needs 2 hours of examination, and there is the queue outside (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.395).

The cure from sleeping sickness
-- one has to destroy the trypanosomes. If they are only in the blood, the drug Atoxyl is working (an arsenic-aniline compound: metaarsenic anilide)
-- But Atoxyl does NOT work in the brain and not in the spinal cord (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.393)
-- the drugs against sleeping sickness are only effective in the 1st and 2nd stage, that is why the quick check-up is life-saving (letters, p.566)
-- malaria is treated with quinine, and if it is a sleeping sickness being treated with quinine, nothing heals and valuable time is lost (letters from Lambarene, p.566)
-- Atoxyl must not be stored in the light, as Salvarsan not either. In rare cases there is a side effect provoking blindness, even with small doses (Edge of the Primeval Forest, S395).

If trypanosomes are found under the microscope, the following injections are proceeded:
-- a solution of Atoxyl and distilled water is injected under the skin [on the thigh?]
-- 1st day: 0.5gr, 3rd day: 0.75gr, 5th day: 1gr, from then on every 5 days 0.5gr
-- Women and children get a reduced dose, but the dose must not be too small, because then the trypanosomes get used to it and become "atoxyl-resistant"
-- sterilized solutions boiled at 110ºC work best, simple solutions less so
-- every 5 days the sleeping sick are waiting for the syringe, Atoxyl can have the side effect of blindness, even with small doses, until 1918 one case has gone blind (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.395).

Injections against sleeping sickness
-- Sleeping sickness sometimes needs more than 20 injections per day with Albert Schweitzer [with 20 patients?] (letters from Lambarene, p.516). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"It is a lot of work that the sleeping sick and people with ulcers have to be treated with intravenous injections. Often there are over 20 such injections in a day." (Letters from Lambarene, p.516)

"On Saturday, the main day of injections for the sleeping sick, Ms. missionary Herrmann knows that we will be an hour or two late for dinner. But she is very lenient with us." (Letters from Lambarene, p.517)
-- Children are fed with sugar in order to survive the painful search for veins with syringes under the skin (letters from Lambarene, p.517) [syringe torture]
-- with emaciated sleeping sickness patients one can hardly find the vein under the skin either (letters from Lambarene, p.517)

Sleeping sickness on the Ogowe River (until 1914)
The sleeping sickness at the Ogowe river in Gabon has a center at the tributary river N'Gounje, approx. 150km upwards, and a small center around Lambarene and at the lake behind N'Gômô (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.389).

The spread of sleeping sickness by the white colonialists from 1870 approx.
As long as there was no traffic in Africa, sleeping sickness was limited to a few centers, because the tribes did not allow strangers from other tribes into their territories. Then the white colonial powers came, they took black people over long distances to other territories [deportations] and so sleeping sickness spread to all of Africa. Approx. in 1880 the sleeping sickness came to Lambarene by a carrier from Loango (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.389).

When infected for the first time with sleeping sickness, 1/3 of the population dies. But in a district of Uganda 2/3 are dying, the population is reduced from 300,000 to 100,000 (p.389). A village with 2000 inhabitants has only 500 inhabitants left after the first infection with sleeping sickness (p.389-390). Then the fatality goes back a bit, but can come again (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.390).

The cure from sleeping sickness - many come in the last stage and then die in hospital
-- first there is a cure for 6 weeks - then comes a break of 8 weeks and people go home for this break - and then the people should come back and take a new cure (letters, p.510)
-- unfortunately many people with sleeping sickness only come in the last stage, they provoke a lot of work, but often die anyway (letters, p.510). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"I keep the sleeping sick here for six weeks. Then the cure is suspended for eight weeks. They go home and come back afterwards. Unfortunately, I have many cases in the last stage that are a lot of work and yet can hardly be saved." (Letters from Lambarene, p.510)
Sleeping sick end up suffering from complete physical paralysis, despite the treatment by Albert Schweitzer [with his 1000s of syringes], e.g. the wife of the black carpenter Monenzali (letters from Lambarene, p.546). Quote (translation):
"Often there is no work on the building site of the house for the new doctor and the white patients because there are no more beams or boards. Often the worki is also interrupted because the black carpenter is busy with his wife [who is suffering from sleeping sickness]." (Letters from Lambarene, p.546)
The wife of the carpenter Monenzali dies on January 17th, 1925 of sleeping sickness - [despite Albert Schweitzer's 1000s of syringes]. Only the bedsore could be prevented (letters from Lambarene, p.571)
[This could have been a reason to begin a research in natural jungle medicine - but Mr. Albert Schweitzer rather liked to play the piano and to pray to a Fangasy God of Rome...]
Sleeping sick sometimes become mentally ill
-- Sleeping sick people can become mentally ill, if they get excited, then they become dangerous. Then an extra cell is needed. Sometimes the mentally ill break out (letters from Lambarene, p.523).

1926: Healing methods against sleeping sickness
In 1926, two new drugs against sleeping sickness were available in Lambarene's hospital:
1) Tryparsamide
2) Bayer 205.

Tryparsamide comes from the Rockefeller Institute and is given to Albert Schweitzer for test purposes against sleeping sickness [human experiments on black people] (letters from Lambarene, p.654).

Tryparsamide also cures sleeping sickness in an advanced stage, but has the side effect that in rare cases the patients damage the optic nerve and become blind - one of Albert Schweitzer's cases goes blind - the drug Atoxyl has the same blind side effect (letters from Lambarene, p.655).

Bayer 205 cures sleeping sickness only to the middle degree [without blind side effect?] (letters from Lambarene, p.655). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
""Bayer 205", the remedy of Bayer's Dye Industry Syndicate Corporation, and the American pharma remedy Tryparsamide both represent a great achievement in the fight against sleeping sickness. Both have their own peculiar advantages and disadvantages. In advanced cases, Tryparsamite is more effective than Bayer 205, but it has the disadvantage that, like the formerly used Atoxyl, it damages the optic nerve in some cases and can provoke a blindness. (Letters from Lambarene, p.655)

Treatment with the drug Tryparsamite can be restarted again. The urge to steal slowly disappears. N'Tsama is now strong enough to go around [...]. Now it is obvious to everyone that also sleeping sick people in the last stage who were previously subject to death can survive. " (Letters from Lambarene, p.655)

Healing from purulent processes

In 1926 a drug called "Turpentine Steel" is used, a mixture of turpentine and quinine, which is used against purulent processes and above all it is effective against "stubborn furunculosis" by injecting intramuscularly (letters from Lambarene, p.658). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"We are very satisfied with the "Turpentine Steel", a Swiss pharma drug that is a mixture of turpentine and quinine. With intramuscular injections, it is of great service to us in various purulent processes, especially in the case of stubborn furunculosis." (Letters from Lambarene, p.658)

The healing of leprosy with Albert Schweitzer

Leprosy on the head   leprosy on the back
Leprosy on the head [3] - leprosy on the back [4]

until 1921: Chaulmoogra oil is injected
-- the transmission route of leprosy is so far unknown [as of 1920] (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.398)
-- Leprosy is being treated with Chaulmoogra oil, which is obtained from the seeds of a tree from back India (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.399)
-- the Chaulmoogra oil has to be pure, in the trade it is often falsified [diluted], Albert Schweitzer has a reliable source from a person who is present in India (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.399)

-- Attempts with chaulmoogra oil injections intravenously are not very successful and are dangerous and must always be done by the doctor himself, which robs the doctors of a lot of time (letters from Lambarene, p.578-579)
-- Chaulmoogra oil is injected under the skin (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.399). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"Recently [as of 1921] it has also been recommended to inject Chaulmoogra oil under the skin." (Between water + primeval forest, p.399)
-- there are also experiments with Nastine in progress, a drug produced from leprosy bacilli (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.399). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"The attempts made in recent years to cure the disease with a substance called "Nastine" obtained from leprosy bacilli give rise to hope that one day it will be possible to combat it effectively in this way." (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.399)
The cure of leprosy since 1925: Chaulmoogra oil + sesame oil + peanut oil

-- the treatment needs much time with a mixture of chaulmoogro oil, sesame oil, and peanut oil - that is the "traditional cure" for Albert Schweitzer (letters from Lambarene, p.578)
-- the healing recipe comes from the Jesus fantasy missionary Mr. Delord: One mixes the Chaulmoogra oil with sesame oil + peanut oil, with this treatment an improvement or at least a standstill of the leprosy is provoked (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.399). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"The only medicine that we have available against leprosy is the so-called (p.398) Chaulmoogra oil (Oleum gynocardiae), which is obtained from the seeds of a tree in Southeast Asia. It is very expensive and unfortunately, the traded Chaulmoogra oil is adulterated. I get mine through the retired missionary Mr. Delord from French-speaking Switzerland, who, when he was working in New Caledonia, was very involved with lepers and has a safe direct source of supply. According to his instructions, I also administer the disgusting-tasting drug in a mixture of sesame oil and peanut oil, which makes it easier to accept." (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.399)
-- the leprosy cure only brings an improvement after several weeks
-- some patients do not hold out and then leave the hospital before they are healed
-- additional syringes with chaulmoogra oil are refused in these cases (letters from Lambarene, p.578).
-- if the patients have to live permanently in overcrowded barracks, that is no stimulation to stay longer in the hospital and then they flee (letters from Lambarene, p.578)
-- between 1924 and 1926, Albert Schweitzer cannot isolate the leprosy cases (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.398) [because famine and dysentery epidemic appear at the same time]

Quote from Albert Schweitzer about lepers who refuse a long treatment:
"We are continually receiving cases of leprosy. How many more would be here if the treatment were not so long! The patient usually notices an improvement only after several weeks of treatment. Many people run out of patience and they do. They usually only come to fetch Chaulmoogra oil that has been prepared to drink, that is, with plenty of sesame and peanut oil, which they then take at home. They are used to this cure from the past. But much more can be achieved by adding a series of injections with chaulmoogra oil, they do not like to be taught because this requires a stay in the hospital which is too long for them. But we hope to have successes that convince them. Living in the crowded Barracks is not a convenience, I have just to admit them." (Letters from Lambarene, p.578)
-- after 10 days those affected are allowed for going home, they are given a supply of Chaulmoogra oil with the instruction to come back in 6 weeks (letters from Lambarene, p.510)
-- this is the best introduction to the later intensive treatment (p.511)
-- an intensive injection cure with new drugs being injected intramuscularly is only possible when the construction work at the hospital is finished and Albert Schweitzer no longer has any building supervision (letters from Lambarene, p.510). Quote from Albert Schweitzer:
"The lepers are permitted to go home after 10 days with a supply of Chaulmoogra oil and are instructed to come back in 6 weeks. The intensive treatment with the newer intramuscular injections can only be proceeded when there is more space in the hospital and I no longer have to be a supervisor of building workds at the same time. Moreover, a correct (p.510) Chaulmoogra oil cure is the best introduction to more intensive treatments." (Letters from Lambarene, p.511)
since 1925: injections with the mixture chaulmoogra oil+peanut oil under the skin

-- From 1925 onwards, Albert Schweitzer now injects the mixture of chaulmoogra oil + peanut oil under the skin, a 50-50 mixture of chaulmoogra oil + peanut oil, which is painless, is well absorbed, is harmless and can also be proceeded by medical assistants
-- This pioneering research in leprosy comes from Prof. Giemsa and his assistant Dr. Adolph Kessler from Hamburg
-- Chaulmoogra oil is mixing well in peanut oil without segregation
-- the exact mixture works with 4 parts of a little bit heated Chaulmoogra oil and 5 parts of a little bit heated peanut oil [hand temperature]
-- then the mixture is sterilized [boiled?]
-- daily 1/2 to 2 cm3 are injected under the skin, which shows good healing results (letters from Lambarene, p.579)

Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"For a certain time we followed recipes of medical reviews proceeding (Letters, p.578) intravenous injection of chaulmoogra oil, mixed with other oils and also mixed in ether. The results were only medium. First the injections had to be proceeded daily, second the injections were far dangerous, and third the injections had to be performed by the medical doctors always. These were the disadvantages with this method. Where take the time for it?

Now we are in the fortunate position injecting chaulmoogra oil under the skin. There were experiments of Mr. Prof. Giemsa ans his assistant Mr. Dr. Adolph Kessler in Hamburg, being performed for us in a corteous manner and we are very grateful for this. The result is that the chaulmoogra oil which is segregating normally, is well mixed in peanut oil already in a ratio of 50 50. Injections with this mixture under the skin don't provoke pains and are well resorbed. And there is no harm at all. With this result, we can treat lepra now with chaulmoogra oil injections under the skin. This is much faster than in veins, is without any danger, and can be proceedec by medical assists. At present we are proceeding like this: four parts of chaulmoogra oil are mixed with five parts of peanut oil, both parts are warmed. After this the solution is sterilized [cooked??]. It's maintained sterile for a long time. The patient gets daily 1/2 until 2 cm3 of it being injected under his skin. If higher doses are well accepted needs more experiments. In too big quantities, chaulmoogra oil can have a damaging effect. The successes of our treating method is very encouraging." (Letters from Lambarene, p.579)

The healing of dysentery under Albert Schweitzer: He CANNOT get it under control - in 1926 Dr. Trensz it's partially recognized as cholera

Weak patient in
                  Africa   dysentery infection,
                  diagram with stomach, intestines and pathogens
Weak patient in Africa [5] - dysentery infection, diagram with stomach, intestines and pathogens [6]

February 1917: Now dysentery is becoming a big problem in Albert Schweitzer's hospital, which heals with subcutaneous injections of Emetine (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.470).

There are two types of dysentery:
1) Amoebic dysentery
-- the amoebic dysentery occurs only in the tropics, with amoeba in the large intestine, which provoke bloody ulcers (letters from Lambarene, p.599)
-- the amoebas eat on the wall of the large intestine and provoke bloody stools (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.400)
-- in earlier times, dysentery was treated with the powder of the root "Ipecacuanha", but the intake was not effective and caused vomiting (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.400)
-- for some years now the drug Emetine from the root Emetinum chlorhydricum has been injected under the skin and the healing comes soon (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.400)
-- the remedy for the treatment of dysentery is Emetine from the Ipecacuanha bark (letters from Lambarene, p.599)
-- The agent is dissolved in water and injected under the skin for several days, then there is a break of several days, then another round of injections, 8-10 centigrams per syringe
-- all in all 2 grams of Emetine are used per dysentery patient for a healing treatment of dysentery (letters from Lambarene, p.599-600)
-- No special diet is necessary (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.400). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"In the past, the treatment of dysentery, which is very common here, was very tedious and basically unsuccessful. The only remedy, the powdered ipecacuanha root, could not be administered in sufficiently effective doses because, taken by mouth, it causes vomiting. Since some years Emetine (Emetinum chlorhydricum) is applied which comes from this root. Injections with a 1% solution of it during several days - 6 to 8 cm3 per day - under the skin provoke soon a betterment and normally a definite healing. The successes border on the wonderful." (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.400)
2) The bacilli dysentery
-- occurs all over the world, according to Albert Schweitzer there is NO means available (letters from Lambarene, p.599).

Amoebic dysentery and bacillary dysentery can also occur at the same time in the same place. Since the "wild blacks" (Bendjabis) moved from the interior of Gabon to the Ogowe River since 1919 to take part in the timber trade, both species - the amoebic dysentery and the bacilli dysentery - have appeared at the same time on the Ogowe River (letters from Lambarene, p.600).

From June 1925 onwards, there is a dysentery epidemic in Gabon on the Ogowe River. The starting point is the port of Cap Lopez, where apparently ship personnel are drinking contaminated brackish water [and it's famine times so they only eat the minimum and have weak systems]. Albert Schweitzer's hospital is overcrowded with dysentery patients and he cannot get the dysentery under control. Instead of quickly building a new healing station 1km away, Albert Schweitzer's hospital becomes a dysengery concentration camp. The "wild blacks" (Bendjabis) still don't accept any instructions, they take the water from the river instead of the 100m distant fresh water source and are infecting lots of other patients (letters, p.599-601) or at the end they are hiding their dysentery for ending up with dysentery on the operating table (letters from Lambarene, p.608).

Dr. Trensz discovering: many people with dysentery do not suffer from dysentery at all, but from a type of cholera (cholerine)

                  victim in Nigeria, Africa
Cholera victim in Nigeria, Africa [7]

In 1926, Dr. Trensz sets up a small bacteriological laboratory. Through microscopic examinations and systematic experiments with faecal samples from dysentery patients, Dr. Trensz detects that the patients' dysentery is often not dysentery at all, but rather they have vibrions that are related to the cholera vibrio. Dr. Trensz states that it is often not about dysentery but about cholerine (letters from Lambarene, p.662). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"In the treatment of the unfortunately still numerous dysentery patients, Dr. Trensz makes a valuable observation. As is well known, there are two types of dysentery: that caused by amoebas - that is, unicellular organisms - and that caused by an infection with dysentery bacteria In a bacteriological laboratory equipped with the most primitive means, Dr. Trensz now undertakes to culture the patient's feces in which no amoebas were found. He awaited dysentery bacteriae to find. But he stated vibrions which are similar to the cholera vibrio being different only by tha way of agglutination. So, what was considered a dysentery by bacteria, could be stated (Letters, p.662) in the most cases as a heavy cholerine being provoked by a paracholera vibrio." (Letters from Lambarene, p.663)

Treatment of all unexplained dysentery cases as cholera cases: with white clay water (white clay dissolved in water)
Since this discovery, Albert Schweitzer has cured dysentery like cholera: with white clay dissolved in water. And as it is cholera and not dysentery, the people are now healing [finally!] (Letters from Lambarene, p.663). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"I had always treated the unexplained cases of dysentery based on cholera therapy with white clay dissolved in water and had seen good results. Now Dr. Trensz's statement explains why something was achieved with this treatment. It is about a disease related to cholera." (Letters from Lambarene, p.663)

The injection against cholerine by Dr. Trensz - the cure for cholerines in 2 to 3 days
Dr. Trensz is growing cultures with the vibrions now for inventing an injection cure ("vaccine") so that the cholerine is cured in 2 to 3 days (letters from Lambarene, p.663). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"Cultivating the vibrios in the laboratory allows Dr. Trensz to produce a vaccine that can cure such cases of cholerins in 2 to 3 days." (Letters from Lambarene, p.663)
Diet with only white rice is the cause of susceptibility to the cholerine bacterium
The pathogen "Choleravibrio" is found in the river system of the Ogowe River, which is "native" there. However, with good nutrition, the cholerine bacterium is harmless. The eternal rice food at the Ogowe river is damaging the intestinal flora, so that the resistance in the intestines of the black population is decreasing and the river water with the cholerine bacteria becomes dangerous (letters from Lambarene, p.663).

The research of Dr. Trensz about the cholera disease with the cholerine bacterium is in progress and a scientific treatise is in progress (letters from Lambarene, p.663).

The cure of hookworm disease (ankylostomiasis) with Albert Schweitzer

                disease (ankylostomiasis)   circulation in hookworm disease (English),
Hookworm disease (ankylostomiasis) [8] - circulation in hookworm disease (English), scheme [9]

The hookworm disease (ankylostomiasis) can be determined with a microscope, about 1cm long worms in the small intestine (letters from Lambarene, p.601)
-- These hookworms were discovered during the construction of the Gotthard tunnel in Switzerland; they can be found in warm, moist soil, i.e. in tunnels or in the tropics
-- The larvae come from the earth penetrating the skin into the lungs and then settle in the small intestine, the worms eat the intestinal mucosa, which then is bleeding continuously
-- intestinal disorders occur - anemia comes - [lack of oxygen] - general physical weakness comes (letters, p. 602) up to heart failure (letters, p. 603)
-- the worm eggs of the hookworms can be seen with a microscope in the chair (letters from Lambarene, p.602).

The cure of hookworm disease according to Albert Schweitzer:
-- take thymol or carbon tetrachloride several times
-- the worms are driven away
-- the patient becomes healthy and has the normal level of oxygen in the blood and the patient becomes strong again (letters from Lambarene, p.602)
-- during the healing process no alcohol or fat should be consumed, otherwise the thymol will be dissolved and have a toxic effect
-- so every hookworm patient is isolated and observed for 2 to 3 days, including white people! (Letters from Lambarene, p. 603).

Healing ankylostoma worms with carbon tetrachloride
Healings with carbon tetrachloride: For this healing method, one has to know that it contains traces of carbon disulfide (letters from Lambarene, p.603).

-- the propaganda thinks that carbon tetrachloride is harmless with no side effects
-- but the experience in Lambarene says, however, that one should not use carbon tetrachloride if the liver function is reduced
-- Chenopodium oil, which can also be used for the treatment of black people, heals better, but it has to be pure oil, not contaminated, not diluted (letters from Lambarene, p.658). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"With the carbon tetrachloride used against the ankylostoma worms, we learn that European drugs must also be handled with caution. It is not as harmless as it is usually presented. It should not be used on people who somehow have a not entirely healthy liver. Every patient has to be examined for his liver function before starting the cure with it. In general we come to prefer the chenopodium oil to the carbon tetrachloride also in the treatment of the black population. The only risk is that the oil is not proper, it has to be pure and unadulterated oil." (Letters from Lambarene, p.658)

The healing of tetanus with Albert Schweitzer

Child with tetanus muscle
                  cramps, photo of the vaccine toxic WHO   circulation with tetanus, scheme (English)
Child with tetanus muscle cramps, photo of the vaccine toxic WHO [10] - circulation with tetanus, scheme (English) [11]

Lambarene - June 1925: Tetanus does not cure - a patient dies
(Letters from Lambarene, p.599)

The healing of the mentally ill with Albert Schweitzer

Sleeping sick sometimes become mentally ill
-- Sleeping sickness can develop to become mentally ill, if they get excited, then they become dangerous. Then an extra cell is needed (Letters, p.523). The mental disturbance caused by sleeping sickness is temporary (Letters, p.654). Sometimes the mentally ill break out (letters from Lambarene, p.523).

Women with hysteria
Sometimes women also suffer from hysteria (Zwischen Wasser + Urwald, p.368). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"I've seen hysteria in several cases." (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.368)
Insanity from poisoning
-- Mental illness can also occur through poisoning, then the poisoning is cured and the mental illness is also over (letters from Lambarene, p.654; Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.361)

-- there is an insane woman with cramps and manic excitement, she is raging and screaming during the night, tranquilizers have hardly any effect - then it is probably poisoning (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.362).

-- The mentally ill are brought to Albert Schweitzer's hospital in a tied up state [binding, in handcuffs etc.] (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.361)

-- if mentally ill women have robbed, then they are persecuted and poisoned (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.362).

Immobilization with scopolamine, morphine, chloral hydrate and potassium bromide

-- The mentally ill become dangerous when they get excited, then an extra cell is needed
-- sometimes the mentally ill break out (letters from Lambarene, p.523)
-- or mentally ill people make noise at night and then get tranquilizing injections under their skin, when Albert Schweitzer is woken up in the night and has to work, then that is really stressful (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.360)
-- the immobilization is proceeded with scopolamine and morphine (letters from Lambarene, p.524), when the mentally ill have "manic excitement", the treatment is for 14 days and then the mentally ill is cured. Albert Schweitzer is thus working out the reputation of being able to heal the mentally ill (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.361).
[Albert Schweitzer does not know a natural sleeping pill or a sleeping agent from the rain forest just around the corner?]
-- but sometimes the "manic excitement" is so strong that morphine, scopolamine, chloral hydrate and potassium bromide have no effect, not even in high doses (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.361).

During the dry season, the mentally ill live on a sandbank in freedom
During the dry season, the mentally are camping on a sandbank 600m away. That is still better than if they were in their village, because there they are tied up with bast ropes, which only increases the excitement (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.360).

The healing of bite wounds (bites) with Albert Schweitzer: leopard-venomous snake-monkey-human

Leopard, teeth   The 10 most poisonous snakes in Africa
Leopard, teeth [12] - The 10 most poisonous snakes in Africa (English) [13]

Human bites provoke severe infections up to the risk of general blood poisoning, even with rapid treatment. The medical helper Joseph means, leopard bites are bad, poisonous snake bites are even worse, monkey bites are even worse and human bites are the worst (letters from Albarene, p.577). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"Biting as an attack or defense action is more common with the Blacks than on our continent. "The worst," Joseph says, "is the leopard's bite; the bite of the venomous snake is even worse; even worse is the bite of a monkey; and worst of all, however, are the bites of humans." There is something true about it. So far [as of February 1925] I have seen about 12 injuries from human bites in Africa. All of them soon showed symptoms of severe infection. In 2 cases there was a risk of general blood poisoning, although the patients came to me within a few hours." (Letters from Lambarene, p.577)

The healing of scabies by Albert Schweitzer

Scabies is a constant itch, some black people cannot sleep for weeks because of it, some scratch their skin sore and then have festering ulcers. Albert Schweitzer heals the scabies cases
1) having a swim in the river
2) with the application of an ointment
-- sulfur powder (Sulfur depuratum)
-- raw palm oil [coconut oil]
-- oil from sardine cans
-- soft soap (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.351).

Already on the second day the itching is reduced and Albert Schweitzer is famous in Gabon by healing scabies with his scabies ointment (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.351).

The healing of colds + pneumonia with Albert Schweitzer

-- Colds in the tropics come in the dry season in winter when the nights are a bit chilly, the natives have no blankets, they are freezing and then cannot sleep at 18ºC because the sweating bodies lose a lot of energy during the day and are vulnerable at night
-- Children are dying of delayed pleurisy (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.366).

-- on the sandbank when fishing in groups, many old people get pneumonia and after returning they die from it (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.366)
-- sometimes pneumonia doesn't heal and people die from it:

Pneumonia sometimes does not heal with Albert Schweitzer - patient dead
"A sailor who also wanted to try the timber trade is brought to me after a stay of only a few weeks with pneumonia, already gasping, and dies immediately. The words "No luck" are tattooed on his chest." (Letters from Lambarene, p.534)

    Conditions similar to concentration camps in Lambarene June 1925
    Death of an elephantiasis patient waiting for the operation - he dies of pneumonia
    A patient with elephantiasis is dying of pneumonia while he is waiting for the operation (letters from Lambarene, p.598).

        [Dr. So Albert Schweitzer travels to Cap Lopez to take a week's vacation and leaves the helpless patient, who cannot even walk, to wait for the operation].

    Albert Schweitzer says succinctly, pneumonia always comes at the beginning of the dry season in June [due to the changeover] (letters from Lambarene, p.598).

Conditions similar to concentration camps in Lambarene June 1925
Death of an elephantiasis patient waiting for the operation - he dies of pneumonia
A patient with elephantiasis is dying of pneumonia while he is waiting for the operation (letters from Lambarene, p.598).

[Dr. Albert Schweitzer travels to Cap Lopez to take a week's vacation and leaves the helpless patient, who cannot even walk, to wait for the operation].

Albert Schweitzer says succinctly, pneumonia always comes at the beginning of the dry season in June [due to the changeover] (letters from Lambarene, p.598).

The healing of boils

In 1926 a drug called "Turpentine Steel" is used, a mixture of turpentine and quinine, which is used against purulent processes and above all is effective against "stubborn furunculosis" by injecting intramuscularly (letters from Lambarene, p.658). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"We are very satisfied with the" turpentine steel ", a Swiss preparation that is a mixture of turpentine and quinine. In intramuscular injections, it is of great service to us in various purulent processes, especially in the case of stubborn furunculosis." (Letters from Lambarene, p.658)

Rheumatism + gout

The blacks in tropical Africa suffer from a lot of rheumatism and gout, although their bodies shouldn't be acidified by eating meat, says Albert Schweitzer (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.366). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"Rheumatism is more widespread here than in Europe. I also meet quite a lot of gout. And the natives really do not lead a gourmet existence. There can be no talk of an excess of meat food with them, because with the exception of (p.366) fish days in summer life has got it's base mostly on bananas and cassava roots. " (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.367)

The healing of poisoning by Albert Schweitzer

Equatorial Africa is full of poisoning and poison attacks (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.362).

Poisoning of patients by the assistant in the hospital
There is always suspicion of poisoning when the "black assist" of an ill person wants to turn off the sick person. The blacks are even tricking the cook (letters from Lambarene, p.594). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"It also happens that in the case of a European, whose condition I cannot explain, I completely switch off the black assistance who came with him under some pretext because I have to control if there was a possible poisoning. That does not mean that I am suspicious of the cook and the boy. Perhaps they are just not vigilant enough to prevent other people from poisoning attacks. " (Letters from Lambarene, p.594)
Poisons used for poisoning in the jungle of Gabon: It should work very slowly
-- the poisons used to poison people often act very slowly [so it should not attract attention]
-- there is not enough time for precise examinations of the poisons
-- since 1913, the remedy against poisoning is "powdered animal coal" being shaken in water, or ordinary charcoal [powder?] shaken in water
-- the natives simply call this remedy "the black medicine" (letters from Lambarene, p.594). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"I have not been able to deal with the nature of the used poisons. Usually they are those that work very slowly. It is enough for me that since 1913 I have tried powdered animal charcoal as a remedy in a number of cases. As soon as I suspect a poisoning case, the patient gets the powdered animal charcoal - when there is none, also normal charcoal works - shaken in water, to drink. [The medical assistant] Joseph looks at me sympathetically when I prepare "the black medicine." Perhaps we will be enough doctors in the future so one can take the time to investigate the poisons. " (Letters from Lambarene, p.594)
Insanity from poisoning
-- Mental illness can also occur through poisoning, then the poisoning is cured and the mental illness is also over (letters from Lambarene, p.654; , p.361)

-- there is an insane woman with cramps and manic excitement, she rages and screams in the night, tranquilizers have hardly any effect - then it is probably poisoning (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.362).
Involuntary poisoning in the jungle of Gabon through "natural healing methods" that are charging the kidneys
-- Black people use natural healing methods wrongly applying roots, barks, leaves, which partly are charging the kidneys and the heart a lot (letters, p.594) or provoke rage attacks ("fits of rage") (letters from Lambarene, p.595)
-- so the blacks sometimes take much too high doses, so that they then cure their suffering a little, but because of poisoning in the kidneys and in the heart they are in mortal danger (letters from Lambarene, p.594)
-- who e.g. takes too much of the seeds of the strophantus bush has a slowed heartbeat (letters from Lambarene, p.594-595).
-- sometimes Europeans can be treated with dangerous African natural healing methods and then they have kidney problems, heart problems and also mental problems (letters from Lambarene, p.595).

Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"I also have to await involuntary poisoning. Some of the roots, bark and leaves that black people use against various diseases have the property that they strongly irritate the kidneys, others that they attack the heart. The doses are too big, life is in danger. There are many kidney diseases and we are powerless without cure, this is because of a healing potion. If the heart beats abnormally slowly, it can be assumed that the patient has ingested the seeds of (Letters, p.594) strophantus bush which is spread here in masses. There are also rage attacks that have poisoning as their base.

Europeans who allow themselves to be treated here with medicines from the natives and who under certain circumstances pay for it heavily are not as rare as one would like to believe." (Letters from Lambarene, p.595)
Chronic nicotine poisoning
-- there are patients with chronic nicotine poisoning, e.g. there was a black government official who has been unable to work for years, he is a constant pipe smoker. Symptoms for him are:
-- severe constipation
-- nervous disorders
-- laxatives aggravate the nervous disorders
-- women are also affected by nicotine poisoning, they are suffering then from insomnia and are smoking all night long in order to numb themselves (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.367).

Tobacco leaves are a currency and stimulant in Gabon
Tobacco leaves have a strong effect and are bad, and are also used as currency for good exchange (barter) (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.367).

Lambarene concentration camp during the famine - summer 1925
New poisonings: mushrooms + wild honey
-- Due to the famine that began in the summer of 1925, blacks now also eat mushrooms, including poisonous mushrooms, and poison themselves
-- and there is still poisoning with wild honey of a certain type of bees, because the wild blacks (Bendjabis) eat so much of it and sometimes die from it too
-- this particular species of bees nests in trunks where a particular species of ants lives, and as a result, the wild honey is mixed with formic acid, which provokes severe kidney infections
-- the wild Bendjabis eat the wild honey of this type of bee in large quantities and also eat all the "dirt attached from the ant's nest" (letters from Lambarene, p.614)

Of the many Bendjabis who come to the hospital because of honey poisoning, only two survive. They are those who have been discriminated during the distribution of honey and have only received little of it. Their kidney inflammation is healing (letters from Lambarene, p.614).

Albert Schweitzer tells to avoid the dark, wild honey, but the Bendjabis do not listen to him, as so often (letters from Lambarene, p.614).

Surgery with Albert Schweitzer

Lambarene, Albert Schweitzer with a
                  patient at the operating table (it may be assumed the
                  assistant is Joseph)
Lambarene, Albert Schweitzer with a patient at the operating table (it may be assumed the assistant is Joseph) [14]

Above all, surgery is performed
-- hernias
-- elephantiasis tumors (letters from Lambarene, p.567)
-- broken bones caused by accidents while falling from trees (letters from Lambarene, p.534)
-- shattered limbs or joints from shooting accidents:
   -- torn hands of a chief who doesn't want to pay (letters from Lambarene, p.515)
   -- shot elbow by an accident while "playing" with a rifle (letters from Lambarene, p.563)

Many blacks refuse to have a necessary operation, but they are standing in line at Albert Schweitzer's hospital (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.377) Quote (translation):
"In some areas of equatorial Africa it is difficult or impossible to get the negroes to have an operation. How it comes about that they almost push themselves to do it on the Ogowe, I don't know. It probably has something to do with that a few years ago a military doctor named Jauré-Guibert, who stayed with the district captain in Lambarene for some time, performed a number of successful operations. I am reaping what he has sown." (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.377)

Preparing for operations at surgery
As long as no nurses are present, the entire preparation of operations falls to the doctors:
-- preparation of swabs
-- sterilize bandages
-- sterilize surgical drapes,
-- cleaning and sterilizing of instruments by boiling in water (letters from Lambarene, p.567).

So the two doctors Albert Schweitzer and later also Viktor Nessmann are by no means "fresh" and relaxed, as one should be during an operation (letters from Lambarene, p.567)

After an operation there is a lot of work that the nurses should do:
-- clean surgical instruments
-- grease surgical instruments
-- wash, boil, dry and put away surgical clothes (p.567).

Surgery: Blacks over 50 cannot remain in a lying position for a long time [ev. the back is not in order]

-- Blacks over 50 cannot stand lying down
-- lose their appetite after the operation and eat too little
-- thus black people over 50 are only operated when there is a danger for life (letters from Lambarene, p.666).

Surgery: The healing of torn hands with Albert Schweitzer

Torn hands from playing with new guns that are garbage - an Afro chief does NOT pay for the healing!
-- since 1924 approx. there are new flintlock shotguns in circulation, but they are almost entirely made of inferior sheet metal. Putting big loads in there like with the old, stable steel-footed shotguns, then the new shotguns burst and shred the hands (letters from Lambarene, p.515). Albert Steiner quote (translation):
"The chief of a small village in the Samkita area is coming for a treatment of his shattered hand. The accident happened when his shotgun broke when he shot a wild boar. This type of accident is much more common now than it used to be. Up to 10 years ago solid flintlock shotguns were sold to the negroes, which still came from the army stocks of the good old days. Now that this solid product has been run out, flintlock shotguns of the worst factory goods are coming to Africa, which are made more of sheet metal than steel. The negroes now carry these weak shotguns with the heavy loads they could put up with the old flintlock shotguns. A black hunter thinks he can never stuff enough powder into the barrel. And he prefers to use pieces of cast iron saucepans as bullets. The modern factory goods are not baring this. That's why there are the frequent injuries from broken shotguns. " (Letters from Lambarene, p.515)
-- the African chief does not want to give anything in return for the healing (!): Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"My little chief is very thankful but (p.515) he provokes a feeling with me and Noël from the first day on that he is a chief but we would be only common human beings. When I begin to change the bandage only once a day instead of controling the injury in the morning and in the evening, I have humbly to anser his questions. But his chief power is not reaching so far to order his family members which is visiting the hospital fur days to work for the hospital some days. For asking 150 leave bricks I have to threaten that I will stop bandaging letting his hand "rottening". When there is no danger any more, I am really stopping everything for half a week not controling his hand any more. In the beginning, he had promised 500 leave bricks for the healing, and I haven't seen any of them. But despite of all, I keep him in my dear remembrance. He is a splendid person in his own way. With primitives one should not judge on some things."  (Letters from Lambarene, p.516)

Surgery since July 1914: healings with methyl violet
-- In July 1914 the first methyl violet reached Lambarene's hospital, Prof. Stilling sent it with the suggestion to try it out in Lambarene, and it was a total success, the only thing that remained was the blue color which Albert Schweitzer did not like (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.449)
-- Methyl violet has the company name "Pyoktanin" and comes from Merck ("Merck 'Dye industry syndicate corporation" - German: "Mercksche Farbenwerke")
-- Professor Stilling - a professor of ophthalmology - has found the disinfecting effect of the concentrated dye methyl violet
-- Methyl violet kills bacteria without attacking the tissue, does not irritate, is non-toxic
-- Methyl violet is much better than sublimate, carbolic acid, iodine tincture
-- Methyl violet also promotes the skin recovering after treating ulcers (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.449)

Surgery: The healing of a shot elbow with methyl violet bandages

Methyl violet,
                  dye powder
Methyl violet, dye powder [15]

A black ex-soldier from the Pahuin tribe works as a cook for a white man 3 hours above Lambarene, and a "game" with the white man's son was "played" with a rifle. Now the Pahuin's right elbow joint is torn:
-- he is brought in at night
-- Albert Schweitzer removes the splinters in the light of the oil lamp (letters, p.561) and disinfects them with methyl violet (letters, p.562)
-- the next morning more than 20 relatives come and want to file a claim for damages with the district captain with the claim that the patient will soon die (letters from Lambarene, p.561)
-- the relatives don't even say thank you for the treatment during the night, but the white man is responsible for his son, he has to thank (letters, p.562)
-- Albert Schweitzer demands 12 bunches of bananas per week for the treatment, and threatens, otherwise the arm will no longer be bandaged
-- the blackmail games are going on: the relatives always send only one ambassador to find out whether Albert Schweitzer is still sticking to the price for the healing, sometimes the bananas don't come until Monday (letters, p.562)
-- the white son (a "boy") is now also in the hospital so that he is not kidnapped or lynched (letters from Lambarene, p.563)

In the end, the African judiciary is judging for the incident:
-- the white boy has to pay 100 shillings in installments of 10 shillings per month
-- the white boy has to give the family of the injured and healed one goat (letters from Lambarene, p.563).

So: in the case of offenses against life, an animal must be given. If the arm had to be amputated, the white boy would have had to buy a woman for the black victim (letters from Lambarene, p.563).

Surgery: The healing of a leopard bite using methyl violet bandages

Methyl violet,
                  dye powder    Leopard, dentition  
Methyl violet, dye powder [15] - Leopard, dentition [12]

Lambarene May 14, 1925
Injury on the arm by a leopard - healing with methyl violet bandages
-- it is about an Italian, Mr. Boles, he wanted to shoot a leopard accompanied with black people, but the leopard survived and attacked the Italian biting him volently into one of his arms (letters, p.596)
-- then the blacks killed the leopard with lances
-- The Italian let 10 days pass before he got to Lambarene, and the arm is in bad condition and the general physical condition is worrying
-- Albert Schweitzer heals the arm [with disinfection] and with bandages with methyl violet, he avoids the amputation (letters from Lambarene, p.597).

Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"On May 14th, an Italian, a Mr. Boles, is coming, whose arm has been badly beaten up by a leopard in the lagoon area south of Cape Lopez. He had shot the animal and followed the trail of blood that plunged it into a small valley with sedge. In this moment seeing the leopard again starting to shoot at him again, also the blacks were seeing it, and they were shouting much warning their boss, but this provoked the leopard so he gave up his retreat and attacked the Italien by jumping before there was a shot. Now the Italian stepped backwards defending his body from the leopard with his rifle. Then he fell to the floor and the animal was biting (Letters , p.596) his arm until the blacks killet it with their lances.

The Italian only arrives at my place 10 days after the accident. The arm looks bad, and the general condition alone gives rise to concern. But methyl violet bandages, after sufficient opening of the wound, has it's effect also this time." (Letters from Lambarene, p.597)

Surgery: A hard piece of elephant meat sticks in a throat
(Letters from Lambarene, p.563)

Surgery: The healing of ulcers with Albert Schweitzer: syringe terror and bandages with methyl violet

Methyl violet,
                  dye powder    Buruli
                  ulcer in Africa + Asia   Leishmaniasis ulcer
Methyl violet, dye powder [15] - Buruli ulcer in Africa + Asia [16] - Leishmaniasis ulcer [17]

-- The people in Africa suffer from ulcers much more than in Europe
-- 25% of African children suffer from ulcers

The sores of the sand flea (imported from South "America")
-- many ulcers are caused by the sand flea (Rhynchoprion penetrans), the females penetrate a weak point in a toe, there a point enlarges to a lens, the extraction provokes a small wound, and if the wound becomes infected with dirt, comes gangrene and often the amputation of the toe. So it is not uncommon to see that Africans are missing toes (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.396). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"Many ulcers result from the sand flea (Rhynchoprion penetrans), which is much smaller than the common flea. The females enter the softest part of the toe, preferably under the nail, and reach the size of a small lens under the skin. The removal of the parasite causes small wounds. If infection by dirt is added, a kind of gangrene occurs and often a toe or a limb of it is lost. Here [in tropical Equatorian Africa] the negroes who have all ten toes are almost less common than those who lost one or more of them." (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.396)
Importation of bad animals by white colonists: sand flea - Sangunagenta ant
The sand flea was brought in 1872 from South "America" ​​in trading boxes and is now spreading all over Central Africa, as is the Sangunagenta ant, which was also imported from South "America" ​​(Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.396).

-- With Albert Schweitzer [until 1926] ulcers sometimes need more than 20 syringes per day (letters from Lambarene, p.516)
"Treating the sleeping sick and the patients with ulcers with intravenous injections is a big work. Often more than 20 such injections have to be performed per day." (Letters from Lambarene, p.516)

It takes weeks to heal ulcers - local healers destroy the healings (!!!)
The healing of ulcers often takes many weeks (letters, p.512) and just sending them home to heal with instructions at home is also not possible because local healers otherwise manipulate the wound with their own negative methods, e.g. they are sprinkling the wound with tree bark powder or with chewed grass and cover it so that healing is prevented (letters from Lambarene, p.513). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"Actually one could send the patient home with some bandage material, Dermatol and Boron ointment. But then I have to fear that they will get into the hands (Letters, p.512) of "medical" old women who will cover the wound with powdered tree bark, with chewed grass and with all sorts of rubbish until the most beautiful suppuration is in progress. So I foresee that some patients with ulcers will be guests at my hospital in autumn yet [because in their home my healing is destroyed and they will come back] ... and among them are some that are poor and come from far away and I also have to feed them!" (Letters from Lambarene, p.513)

The healing of ulcers: injections (Neosalvarsan) or lozenges (Stovarsol)
-- between 1923 and 1927, 2/3 of the patients suffer from ulcers, as in the period from 1913-1917
-- the ulcers in Africa are caused by syphilis and frambösia (raspberry disease)
-- the treatment is now done with intravenously injected Neosalvarsan, it is expensive, because it needs 5 intravenous injections in 1 month (letters from Lambarene, p.511)
-- and new bismuth preparations (letters from Lambarene, p.511). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"Two thirds of the hospital's inmates are here because of the ulcers, as it was before. Ulcers by syphilis and yaws (frambesia) I am treating now with Neosalvarsan, for which I did not have the means before. The cure consists in 5 intravenous injections and needs about one month. I am also performing trials with new bismuth preparations, with good success as it seems to me." (Letters from Lambarene, p.511)
Children with ulcers are not treated with injections because their thin veins can hardly be detected. They get pastilles called Stovarsol for swallowing. (Letters from Lambarene, p.511). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"When there are children with yaws with ulcers on all their body, I normally reject the intravenous injections with Neosalvarsan. So I don't have to look for the little veins in their arm which is a painful search for a long time. The new agent Stovarsol is liberating me from this. It consists in pastilles for swallowing easily. After four days already the crusts over the ulcers are beginning to dry. After eight or ten days the fall off and the child is healed from this illness for ever. Unfortunately, this remedy is very expensive." (Letters from Lambarene, p.511)
The healing of flat, elongated ulcers: injections with solution of Antimony potassium tartrate
On the advice of Dr. Huppenbauer, Albert Schweitzer treats the patients with intravenous injections with 1% solution of Antimony potassium tartrate (Tartarus stibiatus), 8-10cm3 per day, this is not without danger, it flow in only slowly in about 4 minutes (letters from Lambarene, p.512). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"In former times, I did not find any remedy against these ulcers. Now following the advice of Dr. Huppenbauer who was working in former times at Gold Coast, I am proceeding with all ulcers where I have no solution for it a trial with a series of intravenous injections of a 1% solution of Antimony potassium tartrate (Tartarus stibiatus). Every two days the patients get 8 to 10 cm3 of this solution into their veins. It's not a remedy without danger. The dangers are reduced letting flewing in the solution very slowly into the veins within about 4 minutes." (Letters from Lambarene, p.512)
Some ulcers require multiple treatments, e.g. successively
-- Neosalvarsan
-- mercury (as Hydrargyrum oxycyanatum)
-- Antimony potassium tartrate (letters from Lambarene, p.512).

And in rare cases the ulcers do not heal (letters from Lambarene, p.512). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"With the flat ulcers of not known origin I have a file of cases with successful treatment. There are also treatments where one has to try ti give a secuence of treatments one after another treating with neosalvarsan, mercury (as Hydrargyrum oxycyanatum, being given intravenously) and Antimony potassium tartrate. There is one ulcer that I am treating daily since the beginning of May and I tried all with it has not changed at all, has remained as it was before when the patient came to me. But such cases are rare." (Letters from Lambarene, p.512)
Healing of foot ulcers works with syringes with Neosalvarsan (letters from Lambarene, p.543).

Tongue ulcer: The pathogens are "fusiform bacilli and spirilla" like phageenic ulcers (letters from Lambarene, p.658).

from July 1924 approx.: Albert Schweitzer suffers from foot ulcers - he heals himself in 1926
-- Albert Schweitzer had foot ulcers as early as 1913-1917, which then healed well
-- in 1924, due to injuries during construction work, the foot ulcers break open again and he is hobbling and cannot walk well, he controls the construction work by limping, sometimes he must be carried to the hospital when the burning pain no longer even allows him to hobble (!) (Letters from Lambarene, p.564). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"I myself have been a patient for weeks. During my first stay [1913-1917] I had foot ulcers which had healed well. Now [during the second stay 1924-1927] I was busy with construction work which provoked repeated injuries so the ulcers broke open again provoking much worry. I am hobbling around as well as I can. The days with very bad conditions I let myself carry down to the hospital. I just have to be present the whole day long otherwise the construction work is not going on. The worst with the foot ulcers is the nervosity which comes by the long lasting burning pain." (Letters from Lambarene, p.564)
In January 1925 Albert Schweizer's foot ulcers are so bad that he can only walk in wooden shoes (letters from Lambarene, p.566).

Only in 1926 Albert Schweitzer finds the method with homeopathic mercury oxycyanur (drizzling) and from then on he has no more ulcers. He applies the same method as against the phageenic ulcers. The homeopathic mercury oxycyanur solution (1 gram in 2 or 3 liters of water) is dripped on the ulcer with drops from different heights, at the end during the recovering process of the skin the solution is diluted to 1 gram in 10 to 12 liters of water, so the new forming tissue is not damaged (letters from Lambarene, p.660 + 661).

From 1926 Albert Schweitzer was finally able to heal his own foot ulcers, which were provoked by bruises or skin abrasions on the feet. For Albert Schweitzer, the week long stress with non-healing foot ulcers is over (letters from Lambarene, p.661).

Craw-craw ulcers
The craw-craw-ulcers appear in herds, attack feet and lower legs and cause severe pain (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.396).
The pathogens are unknown. The treatment goes like this:
-- drill out the ulcers with cotton swabs
-- wash the ulcer zone out with sublimate
-- fill in the ulcer zone with boric acid powder
-- put a bandage over it for 10 days (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.397). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"Ulcers [...] of the so-called craw-crawl. They usually appear in groups and prefer to attack the foot and the lower leg provoking a terrible pain (p.396). Their causative agent is unknown. The treatment consists in drilling out the ulcer with a cotton plug first until its really bleeding. Then it's washed out with sublimate and with boric acid which is a powder as it's known. Over it comes a bandage [with methyl violet?] for 10 days [and always keep it moist?]." (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.397)
Ulcers of yaws (frambesia)
is contagious, the ulcers can spread eventually all over the body, occurs in all tropics:
-- The first stage is a rash with a yellow crust, underneath a bleeding surface appears that looks like if you had stuck a raspberry on the skin
-- Further development: Over the years, flat ulcers develop on various parts of the body
-- Old method of healing: dab with copper sulphate (Cuprum sulfuricum) and take 2 large pills of iodine potassium (Kalium iodatum) dissolved in water every day
-- New method of healing: inject arsenobenzene into arm veins - this results in a quick and lasting healing (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.397). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"Frambesia gets its name from the fact that when it first appears there is a rash with yellow crusts. Removing this crust a slightly bleeding surface can be seen, and this rash then really looks like a raspberry stuck to the skin. [...] The old treating method consists in dabbing the ulcers with a solution of copper sulphate (Cuprum sulfuricum) and giving the patient two grams of potassium iodide (potassium iodatum) dissolved in water. But nowadays, there is a faster cure with injections of arsenobenzene in the arm veins, faster healing and for ever. The ulcers disappear as if by magic." (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.397)

The bandages of the ulcers
are prepared
- with Dematol, or
- with methyl violet, or
- with boric acid, or
- with Salol, or
- with Ektogan (letters from Lambarene, p.512). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"I alternately use dermatol, methyl violet, boric acid, salol and ectogan for the bandages on all ulcers. I often also use moist bandages." (Letters from Lambarene, p.512)
Phageic ulcers

Carnivorous phageenic ulcer in Africa
Carnivorous phageenic ulcer in Africa [18]

Phagedean ulcers are almost only found in men and mostly on the lower leg (shank) (letters from Lambarene, p.662).

Eating, tropical ulcers (phagedenic ulcer): Suspected cause of coconut oil when cooking
-- the phageenic ulcers (Ulcus phagedaenicum tropicum) are very common at the Ogowe River, they eat their way in all directions, sometimes the whole leg is affected (p.397) and tendons and bones look like "white islands" (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.397-398)
-- the phageenic ulcers stink very much, those affected are isolated in the village, where they die emaciated (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.398)

Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"The worst ulcers are the so-called phageenic - that means that eat further - tropical ulcers (Ulcus phagedaenicum tropicum). They are spreading in all directions. Quite often the whole leg is a single sore area in which the tendons and (p.397) bones can be seen like white islands. The pain is terrible. The stench is such that nobody can stand around these sick people. They are put in some hut and food is brought to them. Little by little they lose weight and after a terrible suffering by the pains they will die." (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.397-398)
-- the phageenic ulcers are a long runner in Albert Schweitzer's hospital and practically only occur in men (letters from Lambarene, p.581). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"Just as a manufacturer has the goal to produce a mass-produced product for some pennies cheaper than before for more efficiency in his company, also we [in hour hospital] must have the goal to heal the phageenic ulcers like a mass-produced product faster [...] According to our observation, only men are affected; in women they almost never occur. " (Letters from Lambarene, p.581)
-- many of those affected are "wild blacks" (Bendjabis), they come from wood yards where a lot of people cook with palm oil. Palm oil could favor phageenic ulcers, but some cases also come from areas where there is no cooking with palm oil (letters from Lambarene, p.582)
"From many sydes I was told that phageenic ulcers occur especially where people get a lot of palm oil. If this is right I don't know. But I noticed that the timber yards [where since 1919 often Benjabis are working] where people is especially well nourished represent almost the highest quote of patients with phageenic ulcers. As fat usually is given palm oil. Accordingly, there might be something correct in that remark. Of course, the phageenic ulcer also occurs in areas where the kitchen is cooking not with palm oil." (Letters from Lambarene, p.582)
When phageenic ulcers kill the patient: infections down to the bone
In rare cases phagedean ulcers also infect "the surrounding muscle tissue deep inside" (Letters, p.661-662), then the bones are also infected, and when this is not discovered immediately, it ends fatally (letters from Lambarene, p.662) . Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"Normally with these ulcers the infection is limited to the ulcer itself. The healthy tissue is seperated sharply from the diseased tittue. But there are exceptions when the infection is also spreading unter the skin between the muscles or along the tendon sheaths, or when it's penetrating the bone, these are severe cases. When the bad direction of the development is not detected in the first days, so splitting of the tissue by cutting with the knife can help yet. But otherwhise remains hardly any treatment. Infection is spreading without end. The case ends fatal." (Letters from Lambarene, p.662)

February 1925: Phagedenic, eating foot ulcers - with 14 men
-- there are 14 Bendjabis with phageenic foot ulcers, some of them are already in a fatal stage (letters, p.577-578)
-- the putrefactive substances produced are damaging the whole body, then death often comes suddenly (letters from Lambarene, p.578). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"In one day, 14 Benjabis are coming from a timber yard, all have severe phageenic foot ulcers. Some of them are in such a bad condition that we can hardly save them. During a longer time the ulcers produce putrefactive substances and begin damaging the general health condition in a heaviest way. People become weak and recover only in rare cases. Death is coming then mostly very suddenly." (Letters from Lambarene, p.578)
Healing phageenic ulcers until 1925: Local anesthesia and scraping - then bandages with potassium permanganicum or boric acid + sodium bicarbonicum
-- 1/3 of the ulcer cases are phageenic ulcers that are moving from the toes to the ankles eat the meat
-- these eating ulcers require local anesthesia and scraping with a sharp spoon to remove the diseased tissue
-- always make moist bandages with potassium permanganicum or sprinkle with a 50-50 mixture of boric acid + sodium bicarbonicum (letters from Lambarene, p.513).
-- for anesthesia, ether is used (letters, p.515).

Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"A third type of ulcer is the phageenic (that is, devouring) tropical ulcers, which usually are formed on the foot and eat from the toes to the ankle, sometimes also going up to the knee. Strangely enough, I have only seen a few of these here [contradiction: 1/3 of ulcers are phageenic - p.513!] The treatment consists of scraping the ulcer out with a sharp spoon every five or six days under anesthetic until all the diseased tissue is gradually removed. In the meantime, moist bandages are made with potassium permanganicum or the ulcer surface is sprinkled with boric acid and sodium bicarbonicum, mixed in equal parts." (Letters from Lambarene, p.513)
[Albert Schweitzer with acids + salts against wounds?
How can wound surfaces be wrapped with boric acid or sodium salt? That irritates the wound, doesn't it?]

"Ether for anesthesia" (letters from Lambarene, p.515)
Treatment of phageenic ulcers until 1925 (from: Edge of the Primeval Forest):
-- only disinfecting and bandaging is useless
-- general anesthesia and scraping is a very bloody procedure
-- wash out the area with potassium permanganicum
-- check daily whether new foci of pus appear, which must be scraped out immediately
-- healing can take weeks or months
-- for healing each phageenic ulcer, half a box of bandages is used
-- the scars cause a deformation of the foot, the patients happily limp home at the end (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.398).

Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"These most terrible of the ulcers [the phagedean ulcers] are very common in the Ogowe River region. With disinfecting and bandaging is not happening anything. The patient has to be euthanized and the ulcer must be carefully scraped out down to the healthy tissue. This is the work in which the blood is flowing, it is washed out with a solution of potassium permanganicum. Now a check-up must be every day controling if there is another purulent stain forming somewhere, and then scratch out again at that point. Until the ulcer has healed, this can take weeks, even months. For such a treatment, half a box of bandages are used. And what does it cost me to feed the patient for so long! But what a joy comes up when he limps - because the foot is crooked by the scars - being liberated from the painful and stinking misery, and when he gets into the canoe to drive home! " (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.398)

[Why isn't it possible to prevent the deforming of the foot by scars? Yoga is missing?]

since February 1925: The new Belgian method of treatment for phageenic, eating foot ulcers without anesthesia: iodoform + bandages with methyl violet
(Letters from Lambarene, p.579).

-- The microscope is now also used in phageenic ulcers and confirms the assessments made with the naked eye
-- In addition, a new healing method from Belgium is used that works without complete anesthesia, so that you can save on anesthetics, which are much more expensive in Africa than in Europe because of the transport of flammable goods in steamers (the price is per m3, regardless of whether it is is a small box or a large box)
-- so 50% of the ether and the chloroethyl are now saved (letters from Lambarene, p.580)

The new procedure:
-- the ulcer is wiped out fairly vigorously for half a minute with a "sublimate lozenge"
-- the pain comes only after the procedure (Letters, p.580)
-- after 1/2 minute the ulcer is rinsed off well with sterilized water which was boiled before
-- the ulcer location is covered with iodoform and placed in gauze compresses soaked in a thin solution of methyl violet
-- the bandage must remain moist (always watering again) and must be renewed daily
-- after 2 to 3 days, the wound is covered with wound litter powder (Dermatol, Salol, Aristol, Vioform etc.) and then comes a dry bandage
-- the skin is slowly growing back, needs 8 to 10 weeks (letters from Lambarene, p.581)

-- Albert Schweitzer has also skin transplants in project: Strips should be taken from a thigh and placed on the place where the ulcer was, so that the strip of skin grows there, so the healing time should be shortened by 2 to 3 weeks (letters from Lambarene, p.581)

Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"The treatment we are now practicing consists in wiping out the ulcer quite vigorously for half a minute with a sublimate lozenge. This is painful. But the pain is only felt when the procedure is over. After (Letters, p.580 ) half a minute, the ulcer is rinsed well with sterilized water which was boiled before. Then it is sprinkled with iodoform and covered with gauze compresses which were soaked before in a thin solution of methyl violet. These compresses are often renewed so that the bandage always remains moist. After two or three days, the ulcer location is so far cleaned that it is sufficient to cover it with Dermatol, Salol, Aristol, Vioform or another wound litter powder and to bandage it dry.

However, if the ulcer is large, it can take another eight to 10 weeks, if not longer, for definitive healing. The skin grows back very slowly. Later, when there is regular surgery, we want to try skin transplants, that is, remove skin in fine strips from a thigh and place it on the ulcer's location so that it grows there. If this succeeds in these ulcers as well as in ordinary wounds, then again much is gained. How much work, dressing materials, medicines and rice will be saved if we can only achieve the skin recovering in 7 instead of 15 weeks! "(Letters from Lambarene, p.581)

from 1926: New healing methods for phageenic ulcers and other ulcers with drizzling with mercury oxycyanur

from 1926: The new treatment of phageenic ulcers with mercury oxycyanur
-- scratching out with anesthesia costs a lot of ether and time and sometimes patients say they would die under anesthesia (letters from Lambarene, p.658)

So it is very beneficial if performing a healing without anesthesia:

-- Mercury oxycyanur: A new therapeutic method with a homeopathic dilution "Mercury oxycyanur" is being developed, the solution is dripped drop by drop onto the ulcer site (letters from Lambarene, p.659):
-- The ulcer is "vigorously dabbed" with a "sublimate lozenge", but this is very painful
-- Then sprinkling was invented to minimize pain
-- By sprinkling, there is no longer any contact, but the disinfection takes place through the pus and through the dead tissue to the base of the ulcer
-- the pus is then "wiped off" and the necrotic tissue "pushed off", in this way contact, friction or pressure are avoided
-- This is followed by rinsing with sterilized water which was boiled before
-- Then every morning a homeopathic dilution of 1 gram of mercury oxycyanur in 6 to 7 liters of water is dripped on it, one drop in several liters of water, and the dripping occurs first from a height of a few cm, then from a height of up to 75 cm, and so the ulcer bursts (Letters from Lambarene, p.659). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"Instead of scratching it out, we now clean the ulcer by vigorously dabbing with a sublimate lozenge. This is very painful. To save the poor from such agony, we try sprinkling now which satisfies us in every respect. The great achievement is that we now avoid touching the ulcer as far as possible and are still able to bring the disinfectant through the dense layer of necrotic tissue to the base of the ulcer much better than before The pus is wiped off with a gauze pad and the necrotic tissue is pushed off as far as it loosens, avoiding any rubbing or pressing, as it is extremely painful for the patient.

Then the ulcer is rinsed off with boiled water. Then the falling water drop comes into action. This falling drop performes the principle work. One gram of mercury oxycyanur is dissolved in six or seven liters of water. Every morning, depending on the size of the ulcer, we let drops of this solution fall continuously on the ulcer from a height of 50 to 75 cm for 5 to 20 minutes. In the beginning, drops from this height cause severe pain. For the first few days, the drops are only seen from a height of a few centimeters. These drops make their way through the thick necrotic coating of the ulcer. When they burst, they tear it apart. The disinfecting liquid penetrates to the bottom of the ulcer (Letters, p.659). In addition there is probably a stimulating effect that the constant hammering of the drops has on the ulcer. " (Letters from Lambarene, p.660)
--> the ulcer is cleaned in a few days and begins to heal
-- in the case of large ulcers, dripping is applied in the morning and in the evening
+ the concentration of the homeopathic solution is increased: 1 gram to just 2 or 3 liters of water
-- the bandages are dipped in a mixture of iodoform, dermatol and salol, each mixed in equal parts
-- during the healing process the drop solution is getting more and more diluted and weaker, to avoid damage, up to 12 liters per gram of mercury oxycyanur (letters from Lambarene, p.660).

The drop method is the general healing method for ulcers

With this method with mercury oxycyanur from 1926, which falls in drops from above onto the ulcer, all other ulcers are also healing well, also with other agents as copper sulfate or other disinfecting substances (letters from Lambarene, p.661). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"The treatment with the falling drop also gives good results for ulcers other than the specifically tropical phageenic. With many, a solution of half a gram of copper sulphate in one liter of water is very successful. In general, all kinds of disinfecting substances can be used for this procedure use in a dilute solution." (Letters from Lambarene, p.661)

ab 1926: Breosan ointment

Also the ointment Breosan is very good, e.g. against craw-craw ulcers with white Europeans, the patients often show staphylococci at the same time (letters from Lambarene, p.661).

After the healing, the white patients are often given a tube with Breosan ointment, that becomes a standard (letters from Lambarene, p.661).

Surgery with Albert Schweitzer: Improving skin transplants (grafts) to heal open spots of ulcers

                  transplants on the lower leg
Skin transplants on the lower leg [19]

Improvement of skin transplants (skin grafts) after ulcer removal
Skin transplants accelerate the formation of skin over former ulcer locations by 1/3 of the time: First First the Thiersch method was applied with transplanted skin strips, then since 1926 the Dawis method is used (Letters, p.660) with the island tactic of covering many small skin circles transplant, so that only little has to be corrected if there is pus forming in a skin circle (letters from Lambarene, p.660-661). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"So far we have used the usual Thiersch method for [skin] transplants, for which long strips of thin skin were removed and put on the location where skin had to be recovered. But often the surface is not really pure yet. Pus is forming under the piece of skin hindering the installment and growing. Therefore we consider to change to the Dawis method now transplanting a serie of little round pieces of skin (Letters, p.660) of about half a centimeter of diameter like islands in distances of half a centimeter being put on the surface. When pus is forming so just one of the little [skin] pieces is affected and this is not so dangerous as if the big rag of the Thiersch method would be affected. And the little pieces come out as more resistant than the long thin rag of the Thiersch method." (Letters from Lambarene, p.661)

Surgery with Albert Schweitzer: cancer, tumors, no appendix cases

Women often have "abdominal tumors" (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.368). Quote (translation):
"Abdominal tumors in women are very common here." (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.368)
On the other hand, Albert Schweitzer says only two pages before:
Lambarene: Albert Schweitzer healed 2000 patients
Appendicitis and cancer do not occur, they are not present in equatorial Africa (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.366). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"In the nine months of my activity [up to the beginning of 1914] I saw around 2000 different patients. I was able to determine that most European diseases are represented here. But I have not yet seen cancer and appendicitis. Rumors say that thei cannot be found with negroes of Equatorial Africa." (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.366)

Surgery with Albert Schweitzer: The operation of hernias (when the intestine "hangs down" - inguinal hernia, abdominal hernia, intestinal hernia, umbilical hernia)

Umbilical hernia in Africa in a child   Inguinal hernia (abdominal hernia)
                  with a man from Sudan
Umbilical hernia in Africa in a child [20] - Inguinal hernia (abdominal hernia) with a man from Sudan [21]
The MoSSad-Wikipedia is presenting the following meaning: A hernia is when the intestines leave the abdominal cavity (translation):

"A hernia (pronunciation: [ˈhɛʁni̯ə]; from Latin hernia, 'break', from Greek ἔρνος érnos" bud, sprout"), English: break, is the exit ("breakthrough") of viscera from the abdominal cavity (Intestinal hernia, abdominal hernia) through a congenital or acquired gap (hernial opening) in the supporting or limiting tissue layers. If parts of the brain leave their normal position, one speaks of a brain hernia." [web01]
-- hernias (inguinal hernia) are common in black people, especially in men, reason is unknown (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.401)
-- trapped hernias are called "incarcerated hernias" (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.401)
-- hernias with Afros have many adhesions that do not occur in Europe, and the operations are correspondingly more complicated
-- Thesis: The Afros want to get rid of the hernias by themselves and then squeeze the tissue (letters from Lambarene, p.589)

Quote from Albert Schweitzer:
"Doctor Lauterburg has ample opportunity to discover that the hernia operations here are on average more difficult than in Europe, because extensive adhesions are almost always found. This is probably due to the many attempts that black people make to remove the hernia, whereby then the tissues are mistreated and crushed. " (Letters from Lambarene, p.589)
-- With a hernia, the intestinal content no longer flows out, emptying is impossible, gases are created, the gases push up the intestine and severe pain occurs, without treatment death will occur in a few days, not in Europe anymore, but in Africa yes, when the people can't get an operation, they cry on the ground for days until they die - and since Albert Schweitzer has been in Lambarene, patients come with hernias (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.401). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"Most often I deal with fractures (hernias). The negroes of Central Africa are much more affected by fractures than the whites. We do not know where this comes from. Trapped fractures (incarcerated hernias) are therefore also much more common with them than with the whites. In the trapped hernia the intestine becomes blocked. It can no longer empty itself and is swelled up by the gases that are formed. This swelling causes the terrible pain. After a number of agonizing days, when the trials to bring the intestine back from the hernia into the body, death is coming. Our forefathers knew this terrible dying. Today we don't see it anymore in Europe because every incarcerated hernia is operated on as soon as the doctor has detected it. "Don't let the sun go down on an incarcerated hernia," the medical students keep being reminded of. In Africa, however, this horrific dying is something ordinary. Already as a boy, the negro could watch a man rolling and howling in the sand of the hut for days until death came as a savior. So, when a feeling of a hernia comes with a man - hernias are much more rare with women than with men -, so he is begging the family members to put him into a canoo driving hem to me." (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.401)
Hernia surgery
-- The operation of a hernia takes an hour with general complete anesthesia
-- There is Pantopon injected under the skin (subkuntan, the operation is being prepared
-- Ms. women doctor is monitoring the anesthesia
-- Joseph is Albert Schweitzer's surgical assistant
-- waking up is painless (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.402). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
<So I put my hand on the wailing person's forehead and say: "Be calm. In one hour you will be asleep, and when you wake up again, there will be no more pain." He then receives a subcutaneous injection of Pantopon. Ms. woman doctor is called to the hospital and prepares everything for the operation with Joseph. During the operation she is controling the anesthesia. Joseph, wearing long rubber gloves, acts as an assistant.

The operation is over. I watch the patient wake up under the dark sleeping barracks. As soon as he is conscious, he looks around in astonishment and is repeatedly saying: "I have no pain any more, I have no pain any more!"> (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.402)

August 15, 1913: Albert Schweitzer's first operation of an incarcerated lumbar hernia
-- a belly hernia case is delivered and operation is needed (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.368)
-- the operation is taking place in an improvised room, the operating room is not finished yet (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.369).
"On August 15th I had to operate an incarcerated hernia that had been brought in the evening before. The man, his name is Ainda, implored me because he (p.368), like all natives, knew the dangers of such a condition enough and there was no time to lose. The instruments were hurriedly gathered from the various boxes. Mr. Christol arranged the boys' bedroom as an operation theater available to me. My wife took over the anesthesia; a missionary acted as an assistant. Everything went well, better than expected. [...] A military doctor coming from the inner of the country and going on vacation to Europe envies me that I was so well assisted during my first hernia operation." (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.369)
"Es gibt Operierte, die ihre Dankbarkeit in Taten bezeugen. Der Mann, der am 15. August von einer inkarzierten Hernie befreit wurde, brachte in seiner Verwandtschaft zwanzig Franken zusammen, "um dem Doktor den teuren Faden, mit dem er den Bauch zunäht, zu bezahlen." (Zwischen Wasser+Urwald, S.478)
The healed patient is collecting 20 Francs in his family for Albert Schweitzer as a reward for the successful operation (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.378). Albert Schweitzer quote:
"There are operated patients who are really expressing their thankfulness with deeds. The man who was liberated from an incarcerated hernia on August 15, he collected twenty Francs from his family "for paying the expensive thread with which the doctor was sewing his belly". (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.378)

What's going on in Africa: hernia surgery with prisoners as assistants

The military doctor was acting in the inner of the Gabon operating a hernia with convicts as assists - with clanking feet - not at all romantic (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.369). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"He was doing his one [hernia surgery] while one convict was giving chloroform at random and another was handing the instruments. The chains on the feet of his assistants rattled with every movement. His medical assistant had become uncomfortable, and it was nobody else available. The asepsis [germ free environment] was of course not perfect, but the patient recovered. " (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.369)

Albert Schweitzer operates a lumbar hernia on the backside under the ribs

An incarcerated lumbar hernia is operated (the intestine "backfires"), the operation takes about 4 hours, and Albert Schweitzer is performing the last stitches under the light of the kerosene lamp - and the patient was healed (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p .377). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"Recently I had a rarity to operate that many famous surgeons might envy me for. It was an incarcerated hernia protruding on the backside under the ribs, a so-called lumbar hernia. The case had every conceivable complication. It ended only in the evening. Joseph had to shine the lamp for the last stitches. The patient recovered." (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.377)

Surgery with Albert Schweitzer: Healing of accidental injuries with moist bandages with the healing dye methyl violet

Methyl violet, this is a dye powder   
Methyl violet, this is a dye powder [15]

Examples of accidental injuries

Eye injuries
A white mechanic from N'Djôle has a little piece of iron in the cornea (letters from Lambarene, p.577)

A black helmsman of a river steamer was hit on his head by an anchor winch (letters from Lambarene, p.577)

Bite wounds when blacks are biting each other
A debtor didn't want to pay and was biting the creditor (letters from Lambarene, p.577)

Examples of serious accidental injuries

-- accidental injuries in the hospital of Albert Schweitzer are treated with the dye methyl violet, i.e. with moist bandages that have been dipped in a solution with the dye methyl violet
-- on the other hand, dried bandages with methyl violet can become dangerous because of the layer formation on the wound, under which the infection can spread further (letters from Lambarene, p.585). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"Until today I have not repented having followed the call of the medical doctor who is not performing amputations any more. This kind of working I thank to the dye methyl violet. Every accidental injury of limbs as heavy it may look like - as all accidental injuries -, is treated with methyl violet. But according to my observation only the moist bandages with methyl violet are acting well. The dry or dried bandages can become really dangerous because then it can happen that methyl violet, in finest distribution, is covering the wound like a fine layer and will form a closing layer on it under which the infection can spread even more." (Letters from Lambarene, p.585)

-- the dye methyl violet does not irritate, when the bandage is moist it has an analgesic effect, heals wounds and even heals burns, the mode of action is unknown up to now [as of 1925] (letters from Lambarene, p.586). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"The great advantage of methyl violet is that it does not irritate. On the contrary, it has an extremely pain-relieving effect. I have often observed this, especially with burns, which I also treat with moist methyl violet bandages. How the effect can be explained and whether experiments have already been made on it, I don't know. " (Letters from Lambarene, p.586)
-- when boils, panaritia and narrowly opened suppurations are connected with methyl violet and become dry, then the matter can easily worsen instead of improve (letters from Lambarene, p.585)
-- the dye methyl violet must "not form any dry precipitates" and only has a healing effect in a moist zone (letters from Lambarene, p.585-586). Quote (translation):
"With boils, panaritia and all only narrowly opened suppurations one can therefore under certain circumstances have very bad experiences with dry treatment with methyl violet. The bandage with methyl violet must therefore be kept constantly moist (Letters, p.585) so that the dye cannot form any dry precipitates. Only in this way is it safe and having its full [healing] effect. " (Letters from Lambarene, p.586)
Methods for keeping the methyl violet bandage moist

-- put moist gauze on the bandage with methyl violet, the gauze is dipped in sterile water before
-- one can cover the bandage with an impermeable material and thus avoid evaporation

-- the moist bandage with methyl violet can also be used where a moist bandage would otherwise be a danger
-- in severe cases the bandage may also be sprinkled with a weak methyl violet solution (letters from Lambarene, p.586). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"New gauze is dipped in a methyl violet solution and then a torn wound is covered with it. This gauze is then kept constantly moist by regularly placing gauze which was moistened in sterile water before. For the sake of simplicity, the bandage can also be covered with impermeable material to prevent evaporation This is even possible where it is a question of heavily infected wounds, where a moist bandage would otherwise be a mistake. The methyl violet allows the use of the moist bandages even where one would otherwise have to proceed and heal without it. In severe cases we also apply constant sprinkling with a weak methyl violet solution." (Letters from Lambarene, p.586)
Case: Infected lower leg fracture with a beginning gas phlegmon
-- in Albert Schweitzer's hospital there is NO amputation, but healing is done with moist bandages that are dipped in a solution with the dye methyl violet (letters from Lambarene, p.586)

Albert Schweitzer's hospital, which can heal complicated wounds - WITHOUT amputations
-- Albert Schweitzer's hospital refuses amputations and instead heals the complicated wounds and thus gets a high reputation (letters from Lambarene, p.586)
-- this has the effect that some black people come and actively ask for an amputation (Letters, p.586), and so the hospital gets the call that patients have to call for an amputation when they want it (letters from Lambarene, p.587). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"Due to the reluctance to amputate that has always been practiced in the Lambarene Hospital, our reputation can no longer be jeopardized by inevitable amputations. It is now happening that black people ask for the amputation of their own accord." (Letters from Lambarene, p.586)

Surgery: The operation of elephantiasis with Albert Schweitzer

Elephantiasis ulcer on the leg   Elephantiasis, list of causes and symptoms
Elephantiasis ulcer on the leg [22] - Elephantiasis, list of causes and symptoms [23]

April 1, 1925: Hernia and elephantiasis operations with Dr. Lauterburg and Dr. Nessmann

Case of elephantiasis: The patient from Samkita suffers from a 30kg tumor that he can even use as a stool, he cannot walk. He will be successfully operated on in 5 hours from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. at Albert Schweitzer's hospital, applying the surgical method by Dr. Ouzilleau from 1913 (letters from Lambarene, p.587):

-- the tumor is split in the middle like a pear
-- this makes it easier to find the blood vessels
-- so the hemostasis (stopping the blood flow) can take place exactly (letters from Lambarene, p.587).

Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"It's also the turn of elephantiasis tumors. On April 1st, such a tumor weighing 30 kilos is handled. The patient is a man from the Samkita region. His tumor is heavy provoking that he cannot move since a long time. It's big and he can use it like a stool sitting on it. Whereas he is rather young yet, he looks like an old man. The operation is lasting from 10am to 3pm. Handling this mass is a big work for us three [medical doctors Schweitzer+Nessmann+Lauterburg]. We are proceeding following the medhod of medical doctor Ouzilleau being published in 1913, the complete tumor is split in the middle like a pear. This makes it easier to find the blood vessels and enables precise hemostasis (stopping the blood flow)." (Letters from Lambarene, p.587)

Teeth and dentition: brushing thymol

Often people have toothache in the jungle
because dentists are missing:
-- a white man pulled a tooth himself together with the help of his wife (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.450-451)

There are:
-- suppuration and loosening of the gums (cause: tartar)
--> if nothing is done, over time all teeth will loosen and fall out (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.368)

Alber Schweitzer then brushes the teeth with thymol and is successful with it, but nothing of the thymol is allowed to be swallowed (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.368). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"Also teeth are not easy to handle for many natives. Many of my patients suffer from suppurations and loosening gum being provoked by much tartar. By the time, all teeth are loosening and falling out. It seems strange that these cases heal better here than in Europe where the most complicated methods are not having success. I have had good results with regular brushing with an alcoholic solution of thymol. Only the patient must not swallow any of this liquid, as it is known to be very toxic. " (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.368)

Bits come from Europe and some black people dream of beautiful teeth (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.368).

The healing of minor illnesses with Albert Schweitzer

Healing from the flu with Albert Schweitzer

Influenza is being treated with wet compresses (letters from Lambarene, p.526).

Burns are healing with moist bandages with methyl violet

Methyl violet,
                  dye powder   
Methyl violet, dye powder [15]

-- the dye methyl violet does not irritate, when the bandage is moist it has an analgesic effect, heals wounds and even heals burns, the mode of action is unknown up to now [as of 1925] (letters from Lambarene, p.586). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"The great advantage of methyl violet is that it does not irritate. On the contrary, it has an extremely pain-relieving effect. I have often observed this, especially with burns, which I also treat with moist methyl violet bandages. How the effect can be explained and whether experiments have already been made on it, I don't know. " (Letters from Lambarene, p.586)

Saving babies with Albert Schweitzer

-- half-dead babies are brought to life and Albert Schweitzer is asking for 500 bricks (letters from Lambarene, p.535). Quote from Albert Schweitzer (translation):
"Just now [...] I am called to a negro village on the other river bank to try to revive a newborn child. I find it naked and freezing, covered with all kinds of herbs, in the hands of the old women. After an hour and a half I make it so far that it starts to breathe properly. And immediately I'll let the father promise me 500 leaf bricks, deliverable in 14 days, as a gift. " (Letters from Lambarene, p.535)

Albert Schweitzer with exchange trade (barter): remedies for building parts + bananas

Bananas in Ecuador how they are
                  delivered from banana trees   street carpenters in Zimbabwe, Africa  
Bananas in Ecuador how they are delivered from banana trees [24] - street carpenters in Zimbabwe, Africa [25]

Albert Schweitzer's bartering: Remedy Stovarsol + Chaulmoogra oil for leaf bricks and bananas
-- Albert Schweitzer only gives Stovarsol [for ulcers on the body] for leaf bricks, which the family of the sick person has to deliver
-- Albert Schweitzer only gives Chaulmoogra oil [against leprosy] for leaf bricks or bananas
-- but sometimes he cannot enforce the barter trade when a poor mother is asking for the healing of her child and when people are coming from far away (letters from Lambarene, p.511). Quote (translation):
"I let it be spread everywhere that I basically only give Stovarsol for bricks. I am unable to carry out this determination. Many poor mothers are not in the situation to deliver leaf bricks for having a treatment for her baby with the medical doctor. But with Stovarsol I was already able to cover some square meters of roof. Also chaulmoogra oil I principally only give for leaf bricks or bananas, at least the people in my neighborhoos of Lambarene. The ones coming from far away cannot charge their boats with it. They must be happy when they have all in their boats for living in the hospital, that are sleeping mats, their cooking pots, their food reserve and so on." (Letters from Lambarene, p.511)

The diseases of white patients in the jungle of Gabon

White patients in Lambarene: foot ulcers, malaria, blackwater fever

White patients are sometimes sufferingin the jungle of Gabon from
-- foot ulcers,
-- malaria,
-- and only the whites especially are suffering from blackwater fever (malaria with dissolved red blood cells, which then clog the kidneys, and the red pigment of the blood cells then color the urine dark red) (letters from Lambarene, p.533). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"The white patients [in Africa] have all nationalities. In my little guest book have signed already English, Swiss, Dutch, Swedish, Canadians and "Americans". Most of them are coming because of feet ulcers or because of malaria. There were also two cases of the dreaded blackwater fever, one case was heavy and another case was in it's beginning. Blackwater fever is coming when malaria is developping a dissolution of the red blood cells, the mechanism is not cleared yet how this goes. The remains of them are clogging the kidneys and are therefore provoking a fatal danger to the patient. The red pigment of the disintegrated blood cells appears in the urine and turns it dark red. That's why the illness has got the name blackwater fever." (Letters from Lambarene, p.533)

Blackwater fever

The cure for blackwater fever: injections with 3% cooking salt solution under the skin (thigh) and 1% solution with cyan mercury (Hydrargyrum oxycyanatum) intravenously

Syringe symbol    Blackwater feever, the list of symptoms 
Syringe symbol [1] - Blackwater feever, the list of symptoms [26]

Symptoms with black water fever
Black-water fever: rapid and massive intravascular hemolysis [dissolution of red blood cells] of both parasitized and non-parasitized RBCs
-- the urin appears dark red to brown-black [with the -- dissoluted red blood cells in the urine]
-- renal failure hemoglobinurea
-- diarrhea and vomiting
-- pulmonary edema
-- hypoglycemia
-- hyperpyrexia
-- pregnant women

Blackwater fever is a complicated form of malaria and there is a risk of kidney collapse - MoSSad-Wikipedia says:

"Hemoglobinuria (black water fever): The increased hemoglobin level in the blood caused by the massive hemolysis leads to hemoglobinuria (hence the former name black water fever, which was mainly observed in malaria tropica after Chininese use), the excretion of hemoglobin via the kidneys. The resulting increase of hemoglobin level in the urine makes it significantly darker. Hemoglobinuria, which is visible to the naked eye, is one of the criteria for complicated malaria and can lead to acute kidney failure. Treatment of blackwater fever includes stopping the quinine treatment and giving chloroquine. [38] "[web02]

Strangely enough, the black water fever in Albert Schweitzer's hospital occurs almost only among whites (letters from Lambarene, p.576). Quote (translation):
"It is inexplicable, for example, that it [the blackwater fever disease] only affects Europeans and almost never blacks." (Letters from Lambarene, p.576)

Albert Schweitzer gives heaps of injections against the breakdown of blood cells. In his opinion, this works best with a saline solution:
-- inject 1/2 liter of 3% sterile saline solution under the skin every 8 hours, but this only works if it starts in time and is very painful
-- stimulate kidney activity: inject 1% solution with cyan mercury (Hydrargyrum oxycyanatum) intravenously 1 to 2 cm3 daily (letters from Lambarene, p.533).

Albert Schweitzer quote:
"The treatment consists of trying to put an end to the breakdown of red blood cells. The safest way to do this is to inject half a liter of 3% sterile saline solution under the skin every eight hours. This is very painful, but it works, when the beginning of the treatment is beginning more or less in time yet, this is normally rescuing. To stimulate kidney activity, one percent solution of cyano mercury (Hydrargyrum oxycyanatum) is given intravenously, one to two cubic centimeters a day. " (Letters from Lambarene, p.533)

[Natural medicine?
When Albert Schweitzer had studied natural jungle medicine with all the plants and herbs next door instead of playing piano and praying to a fake God of Rome, probably he could have spared much money and time for injections...]
Case in February 1925: patient Rochowiack from Poland with foot injury+black water fever
-- he has a foot injury, then there is also blackwater fever because he has taken quinine as a precaution because of a suspected malaria (quinine destroys the red blood cells). Quote (translation):
"Mr. Rochowiack felt a little feverish and took quinine, which was not his habit, he did so quite a lot being persuaded by the patients who shared his room. The next morning he had blackwater fever. [...] Those who do not take quinine on a regular basis somehow cause the outbreak of blackwater fever, I found this confirmed also this time." (Letters from Lambarene, p.575)
-- Rochowiack is terrified because in Rhodesia he saw 7 people die of black water fever, but Albert Schweitzer has cured ALL cases of black water fever so far
-- healing takes place with syringes with saline solution in each thigh, as well as syringes with blood serum, artificial serum and highly dosed calcium chlorate:
   -- there are injections of 200cm3 of a 3% saline solution in every thigh under the skin
   -- this is repeated 2 to 3 times with an interval of 6 hours, this is the main remedy
   -- the saline solution injections (with cooking salt) are very painful, the pain increases for a few days when the patient is already out of danger
   -- the patient must just not get upset about the pain
   -- other syringes against blackwater fever are:
     -- sterilized blood serum
     -- artificial serum
     -- strongly dosed calcium chlorate (letters from Lambarene, p.575)

-- Albert Schweitzer can finally cure the dreaded blackwater fever (destroyed red blood cells, e.g. by high doses of quinine) by injecting 3% saline solution under the skin of the thighs (letters from Lambarene, p.575-576)

Quote (translation):
"There was a Polish man, Mr. Rochowiack, he came because of a foot injury, and during his stay in my hospital, he gets blackwater fever. Now he thinks he is lost because in Rodesia, he observed seven cases of blackwater fever and all ended fatal. Ok, I came to him consoling him that I never had lost any blackwater fever patient before. Also with him I was successful with my treatment. It consists of a 3% cooking salt solution being injected under the skin, in every thigh 200cm3. This is proceeded two or three times per day with 6 hours rest, in this way the injections are repeated. They provoke much pain. But the worst pain is not coming instantly but in some days only when the patient has left the danger zone already, so the big task is not to argue about the pain. I consider the injections as the main point of the treatment of blackwater fever. Additionally I am injecting as normally sterilized blood serum and artificial serum and there is calcium chlorate given in heavy doses." (Letters from Lambarene, p.575)
When quinine, considered a cure for malaria in the 1920s, is taken in high doses as a prevention against malaria, the red blood cells are destroyed and blackwater fever develops. The process is still unclear (letters from Lambarene, p.575-576). Quote (translation):
"Under what conditions quinine is causing the massive destruction of red blood cells provoking blackwater fever we don't know at all, and this is not the only point of this illness which is not clear but more an enigma yet. For example, it's inexplicable that only Europeans are affected and almost never black people."(Letters from Lambarene, p.576)

Malaria (tropical marsh fever)

Malaria symptoms:
-- fever + chills
-- the swollen spleen under the left ribs, sometimes up to the navel, is like a "painful stone"
-- the malaria sufferers are tired, battered, plagued by headaches, all work is difficult (Zwischen Wasser + Urwald, p.399)
-- after a few months there is also an anemia (Edge of the Primeval Forest, p.400).

Healing from malaria with Albert Schweitzer
-- Albert Schweitzer cures malaria with arsenic + quinine, e.g. intake of 1/2 gram of quinine twice a week
-- the arsenic preparation "Arrhenal" increases the effect of quinine, it is injected subcutan [under the skin] (Zwischen Wasser + Urwald, p.400).

White patients with malaria

-- almost 50% of the white patients have malaria (letters from Lambarene, p.674)
-- Albert Schweitzer can observe with two malaria patients how the consumption of beer is worsening their malaria up to being fatal (letters from Lambarene, p.683). Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"Their joy [of the two doctors, Dr. Lauterburg and Dr. Mündler] is dampened by the fact that we lose two young Europeans due to severe malaria in spring. One of them had just a seemingly harmless attack first. To refresh himself, he drank two glasses of beer. The following day the fever rose and could no longer be mastered. This is the second case in which I have had the opportunity to determine that a fatal worsening of malaria came after drinking beer. How the cases are to be explained remains in the dark." (Letters from Lambarene, p.683)

White patients in Lambarene: Deep muscle abscesses, pneumonia, fractures, leopard attacks, etc.

Muscle abscesses in the thigh, X-ray photo   Leopard, dentition   Smashed leg from accident, Jim Baxter
Muscle abscesses in the thigh, X-ray photo [27] - Leopard, dentition [12] - Smashed leg from accident, Jim Baxter [28]

Further illnesses of white patients at Albert Schweitzer's hospital in Lambarene are:
-- deep muscle abscesses due to years of stay in the jungle - they occur equally with white people and black people (letters from Lambarene, p.533-534)
-- pneumonia from the timber trade (logging and stress without end)
-- fractures caused by cutting wood timbering, when a tilting trunk smashes the leg - a large plaster comes out
-- curing leopard attacks: The paws destroy the muscle tissue down to the bone: The injured person must be brought quickly, otherwise healing is impossible. First the infection is eliminated and then the muscle tissue has to be restored (letters from Lambarene, p.534).

Muscle abscesses: remove it with a knife
In general, Albert Schweitzer thinks (translation):
"Such abscesses are very spread here with blacks or whites equally. Blackwater fever, however, does not occur with black people." (Letters from Lambarene, p.534). And once the muscle abscesses are healed, they can always come back if the immune system is somehow weakened (letters from Lambarene, p.572).
And now let's see the patient Mr. Crow with his muscle abscesses:
"An American (Mr. Crow - Letters, p.570-571) with numerous deep-lying muscle abscesses is provoking much work for me. Opening one another one is announcing it's existence. Until now my knife was searching for eight. How long the weak man will stand this illness with suppurations and never ending fever after 5 years in tropical Africa with timbering activitiy I don't know." (Letters, p.533)
This "American" was emaciated up to the skeleton, but is getting on his feet again (Briefe, p.563). Quote:
"The American, who has been here since the beginning of October and for whom we had to open one deep muscle abscess after the other, is starting to try to walk again. I had almost given up hope of saving him. He was emaciated to a skeleton." (Letters from Lambarene, p.563)
In the end the "American" Mr. Crow can do everything again and even goes for delivering timber from a distance of 30 km (letters from Lambarene, p.570-571)

At the very end the "American" Mr. Crow gets a sunstroke while driving to a friend, the immune system is on the ground, new muscle abscesses are coming and he is burdening the hospital again ... (letters from Lambarene, p.572)

Pneumonia sometimes does not heal with Albert Schweitzer - patient dead

Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"A sailor who also wanted to try the timber trade is brought to me after a stay of only a few weeks, he suffers from pneumonia, already gasping, and dies immediately. On his chest are tattooed the words "No luck." (Letters from Lambarene, p.534)
Conditions similar to concentration camps in Lambarene June 1925
Death of an elephantiasis patient who is waiting for the operation - he dies of pneumonia
A patient with elephantiasis is dying of pneumonia while he is waiting for the operation (letters from Lambarene, p.598).
[Dr. Albert Schweitzer travels to Cap Lopez to take a week's vacation and leaves the helpless patient, who cannot even walk, to wait for the operation].
Albert Schweitzer says succinctly, pneumonia always comes at the beginning of the dry season in June [due to the changeover] (letters from Lambarene, p.598).

A tilting tree trunk smashes a thigh while chopping wood: rest position with weights or giant plaster

Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"Downstairs in the negro hospital lies a man whose right thigh bone was broken into three pieces by a branch of a falling tree in the lumber yard. He is giving in with patience that during the healing process he will stay in a calm resting position with a stretched leg being loaded with weights, and he will be healed like this for sure. There were other patients before with broken thigh bones and this best healing method was not possible but I had to install a giant plaster because they did not want to stay in a rest position." (Letters from Lambarene, p.534)
Injury by a leopard's paw: disinfection + restoration of muscle tissue

Albert Schweitzer quote (translation):
"At the moment, when we are performing bandaging in the morning, always a "leopard man" is called. He is a quiet young man who was attacked by a leopard in his hut during the night. The leopard hit his paw in his right upper arm but let him go when people came with a light. As the blacks know by their own experience about the terrible infections being provoked by injuries of a leopard's paw, they were transporting the patient without delay to me in a canoe. When they arrived after 12 hours, the upper arm had been swollen much and was very painful already. Also fever had come already. But on his skin could not be seen much of the injury, only four little stitches as if made with needles. Opening the tissue with the knife the injury showed that the muscle tissue was torn down to the bone. Nowadays the leopard man will be soon able to be leave. For making himself useful, he helps with ironing. " (Letters from Lambarene, p.534)
Sunstroke with the whites

Sunstroke symptoms, list:
                  headache, red + hot head, stiff neck, body often
                  rather cool, dizziness, nausea, vomiting
Sunstroke symptoms, list: headache, red + hot head, stiff neck, body often rather cool, dizziness, nausea, vomiting [29]

A white timber merchant who was betrayed by black timber merchants ends up in Albert Schweitzer's hospital with a sunstroke, is in debt and is returning to Europe with losses (letters from Lambarene, p.564).

The "American" patient Mr. Crow: At the very end after the successful treatment of muscle abscesses, Mr. Crow got a sunstroke while driving to a friend and again burdened the hospital with a weak immune system and new muscle abscesses (letters from Lambarene, p.572) .

Furunculosis with whites - since 1926: Turpentine Steel
[Well, some white people sit and read and write too much in the sitting posture and then get boils from sitting forever].
Dr. Viktor Nessmann is suffering from furunculosis in the first year of his work in Albert Schweitzer's hospital and is lying in bed (Letters, p.566), and the boils are coming more and more and then also fever comes (letters from Lambarene, p.571).

Albert Schweitzer says succinctly that many white people who come to Africa are suffering from boils (letters from Lambarene, p.571). Quote from Albert Schweitzer:
"It is a well-known fact that Europeans often inaugurate their stay in Equatorial Africa with protracted furunculosis." (Letters from Lambarene, p.571)

[Unfortunately Albert Schweitzer does not give the reasons, otherwise the health chair would have been invented long ago].

In 1926 a drug called "Turpentine Steel" was used, a mixture of turpentine and quinine, which was used and working well against purulent processes and above all against against "stubborn furunculosis" by injecting intramuscularly (letters from Lambarene, p.658). Quote from Albert Schweitzer:
"We are very pleased with the" Turpentine Steel", a Swiss preparation that is a mixture of turpentine and quinine. In intramuscular injections, it is of great service to us in various purulent processes, especially in the case of stubborn furunculosis." (Letters from Lambarene, p.658)

Racism with Albert Schweitzer

-- Natives / aborigines are called "primitives and semi-primitives" without applying or developing their natural medicine at all (Life + Thought, p.163)

-- Destroying the jungle: "What a pleasure I felt to win fields from the jungle!" (Life + thinking, p.218)

-- the term "workers material" (original German: "Arbeitsmaterial" - in: Letters from Lambarene, p.482)

Albert Schweitzer's hospital is a test laboratory for Rockefeller - for example, sleeping sickness in 1926 with tryparsamide or Bayer 205
Tryparsamide comes from the Rockefeller Institute and is given to Albert Schweitzer for experimental purposes against sleeping sickness [human experiments on black people] (letters from Lambarene, p.654).

Logical questions for more efficiency with Mother Earth in a hospital

Bringing European craftsmen to Lambarene?
-- Why didn't Albert Schweitzer have his own craftsmen come from Strasbourg or take them with him?
-- These European craftsmen could also have trained black craftsmen - the chance was wasted!

Learn to be a carpenter and roofer himself?
-- why didn't Albert Schweitzer quickly learn to be a carpenter and roofer himself? Instead, he has given concerts and lectures in Europe?

Why not corrugated iron right from the start?
-- Why did Albert Schweitzer not calculate clearly that corrugated iron not only saves repair time, but also more patients survive who are killed by pneumonia with perforated leave roofs in the rain at night?

Hasn't there been any plastic sheeting yet?
-- Why is Albert Schweitzer always looking for leaf bricks? Wasn't there any plastic sheet there? Why didn't he bring any plastic sheeting when there were already car tires?

Albert Schweitzer is not learning natural medicine?
Afro-healers damage the healings of Albert Schweitzer when the patients go home before they have completely healed (letters from Lambarene, p.513).
-- One wonders why people don't go into the villages and teach healing there - but unfortunately without natural medicine and only with chemicals in his hands Albert Schweitzer cannot teach the Afros anything.
-- So, there is the question: Why didn't Albert Schweitzer learn natural medicine and learn natural medicine with tropical plants? Homeopathy, jungle plants and noni are missing. Why didn't Albert Schweitzer discover baking soda as a remedy? The port would have been there! In his freetime he has only prayed and played the piano...

Chicken coop under the house in the tropics?
How can Albert Schweitzer plan a new wooden house on stilts for white sick people, employees and storage space and think that chickens can "live" under it? (Letters from Lambarene, p.569).

Questions to African governments

Why was the government of Gabon incapable
-- to create a fairway in the Ogowe River so that accidents with sandbanks no longer occur when the water is low?
-- to catch whales and distribute whale meat when there is famine in the country - and let Norwegian whalers catch the whales instead?

Why are African governments incapable
-- to build moles for the harbors in order to proceed loading and unloading operations fast and safe?
-- to set up their own school system and instead let the false praying worshipers from Rome lead the population into false arrogance, which in the end only ends in alcohol again?

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[web01] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hernie
[web02] https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaria#Hämoglobinurie

Photo sources
[1] Syringe symbol: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/793548396834923272/
[2] African sleeping sickness: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/753156737656311460/
[3] Leprosy on the head: https://www.merkur.de/leben/gesundheit/lepra-krankheit-ist-noch-lange-nicht-besiegt-zr-7338860.html
[4] Leprosy on the back: http://www.eluniversalqueretaro.mx/ciencia-y-tecnologia/datos-que-debes-conocer-sobre-la-lepra
[5] Weak patient in Africa: https://www.spectator.co.uk/article/africa-s-invisible-epidemics
[6] Dysentery, scheme with intestine and pathogens: https://factdr.com/health-conditions/dysentery/
[7] Cholera victims in Nigeria, Africa: http://www.healthnews.ng/nigerias-reemerging-cholera-outbreak-hits-plateau-state/
[8] Hookworm disease (ankylostomiasis): https://deximed.de/home/b/magen-darm-trakt/krankheiten/darminfektions/ankylostomiasis-hakenwurmbefall/
[9] Circulatory system for hookworm disease, scheme (English): https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Ankylostomiasis
[10] Child with tetanus muscle cramps, photo of the vaccination WHO: https://www.immunize.org/photos/tetanus-photos.asp

[11] The cycle with tetanus, scheme (English): https://www.vanguardngr.com/2016/12/natures-unseen-killer-not-mercy-tetanus/
[12] Leopard, teeth: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/702702348102187938/
[13] The 10 most poisonous snakes in Africa: https://www.tripsavvy.com/africas-most-dangerous-snakes-1454122
[14] Lambarene, Albert Schweitzer with patient at the operating table: Film: Albert Schweitzer: My Life is My Argument (17'29 '')
[15] Methyl violet, dye powder: https://www.indiamart.com/proddetail/methyl-violet-dye-12436570455.html
[16] Buruli ulcer in Africa + Asia: https://www.huidziekten.nl/afbeeldingen/Buruli-ulcus-4.jpg
[17] Leishmaniasis ulcer: https://www.spektrum.de/wissen/reisekrankheiten-die-man-fuerchten-sollte/1300240
[18] Carnivorous, phageenic ulcer in Africa: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0738081X08002174
[19] Skin transplant on the lower leg:
[20] Umbilical hernia with a child in Africa: https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hernia_umbilical

[21] Inguinal hernia (abdominal hernia) with a man in Sudan: http://www.southsudanmedicaljournal.com/archive/may-2013/rare-abdominal-wall-hernias-in-south-sudan.html
[22] Elephantiasis ulcer on the leg: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/469711436138837801/
[23] Elephantiasis, list of causes and symptoms: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/662099582696656455/
[24] Banana trees in Ecuador: http://www.am-sur.com/am-sur/ecuador/r-L-Guay-2008-08-teil3-retour/06-2-Machala-Huaquillas.html
http://www.am-sur.com/am-sur/ecuador/rL-Guay-2008-08-teil3-retour/06-02-Mach-Huaq-d/z003-Machala-bananenstauden-auf-trottoir. jpg
[25] Street carpenter in Zimbabwe, Africa: http://www.ipsnews.net/2014/04/informal-carpenters-hammer-away-zimbabwes-state-revenue/
[26] Blackwater fever, the list of symptoms: https://www.onlinehomeremedies.com/blackwater-fever/
[27] Muscle abscesses in the thigh: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F3-540-27612-2_21
[28] Crashed leg by accident, Jim Baxter: https://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/sport/football/football-news/day-rangers-legend-jim-baxter-13348297
[29] Sunstroke symptoms, list: https://www.br.de/radio/bayern1/sonnenstich-100.html